Republic of PolandPrevious name:
People’s Republic of Poland, July 22, 1952-December, 29, 1989Type of state:
“Post”-communist “multiparty” state under covert communist control, exercised through “ex”-communist parties such as the Democratic Left Alliance (related to Polish United Workers’ Party), communist fronts such as Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right and successor parties such as Law and Justice and Civic Platform, and communist-infiltrated parties such as the Polish People’s Party and Democratic PartyNeo-communist renewal:
“Collapse of communism,” 1989Communist Bloc memberships:
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (1949-1991), European Union (May 1, 2004)Warsaw Pact membership:
May 14, 1955-July 1, 1991NATO membership:
March 12, 1999Socialist International presence:
Democratic Left Alliance (“ex”-members of Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR), later absorbed Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, successor of PZPR)
, Labor Union
1) Law and Justice (formerly faction of Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, related to communist front “Solidarity”) in coalition with Civic Platform (formerly faction of Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, related to communist front “Solidarity”) and League of Polish Families: 2005-present
2) Democratic Left Alliance (formerly communist Polish United Workers’ Party) in coalition with Labor Union and Polish People’s Party (communist infiltrated): 2001-2005
3) Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right (including Social Movement for Solidarity Electoral Action, political wing of communist front “Solidarity” Independent Self-governing Trade Union) in coalition with Freedom Union (communist infiltrated) and other parties: 1997-2001
4) Democratic Left Alliance (“ex”-members of communist Polish United Workers’ Party) in coalition with Polish People’s Party (communist infiltrated): 1991-1997
5) Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (formerly communist Polish United Workers’ Party) in coalition with Polish People’s Party (formerly United Peasants’ Party, communist infiltrated), Democratic Party (communist infiltrated), and Association of Lay Catholics (communist infiltrated): 1990-1991 (65% seats in Sejm reserved for communists and their allies)
6) Polish United Workers’ Party in coalition with United Peasants’ Party (communist infiltrated), Democratic Party (communist infiltrated), and Association of Lay Catholics: 1989-1990 (65% seats in Sejm reserved for communists and their allies)
7) Patriotic Front for National Rebirth (consisting of Polish United Workers’ Party, United Peasants’ Party (communist infiltrated), Democratic Party (communist infiltrated), and pro-communist “nonpartisans”), sole legal coalition: 1985-1989
8) National Unity Front, sole legal coalition: 1983-1985
9) Military Council of National Salvation in support of National Unity Front, sole legal coalition: 1981-1983 (martial law)
10) National Unity Front (consisting of Polish United Workers’ Party (merger of Polish Workers’ Party and Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski’s branch of Polish Socialist Party), United Peasants’ Party (communist infiltrated, merger of Polish Peasants’ Party and United People’s Party), Democratic Party (communist infiltrated), pro-communist “nonpartisans,” and communist-controlled Catholic lay organizations), sole legal coalition: 1948-1981
11) Soviet-sponsored Provisional Government of National Unity, consisting of Polish Workers’ Party, Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski’s branch of Polish Socialist Party, Polish Peasants’ Party, United People’s Party, and Democratic Party: 1945-1948
12) Soviet-sponsored Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, consisting of Polish Workers’ Party, Polish Peasants’ Party, United People’s Party, and Democratic Party; under semi-official control of Soviet General Iwan Sierow: 1945
13) Soviet-sponsored Polish Committee of National Liberation (Lublin Committee), consisting of State National Council (itself consisting of Polish Workers’ Party, Polish Peasants’ Party, United People’s Party, and Democratic Party) and Union of Polish Patriots (communist front): 1944-1945
14) Soviet-sponsored State National Council, consisting of Polish Workers’ Party (revived Communist Party of Poland), Polish Peasants’ Party, United People’s Party, and Democratic Party: 1943-1944
1) Semi-fascist government of “Castle” and “Right” (Camp of National Unity) factions of Sanation: 1935-1939 (ended by German invasion)
2) Semi-fascist dictatorship of Field Marshal Jozef Pilsudski with support from Sanation/Non-Partisan Block of Collaboration with the Government, coalition of rightists, centrists, and leftists; persecuted communists: 1926-1935 (ended by Pilsudksi’s death)
3) Government of Chief of State Jozef Pilsudski and nationalist-leaning Polish Socialist Party: 1918-1922
Presidents of “post”-communist Poland:
1) Bronislaw Komorowski (Civic Platform, Conservative People’s Party, Movement for Defense of Human and Civic Rights, which later joined Solidarity): April 10, 2010-present (acting)
2) Lech Kaczyński (Law and Justice, Center Agreement, Citizens’ Parliamentary Club/Solidarity Citizens’ Committee, communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”; advisor to secret police informer Lech Wałęsa): December 23, 2005-April 10, 2010 (killed in Polish Air Force jet crash near Smolensk, Russia)
3) Alexander Kwaśniewski (communist Polish United Workers’ Party, “ex”-communist Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland/Democratic Left Alliance): December 23, 1995-December 23, 2005
4) Lech Wałęsa (alleged secret police informer “Bolek,” communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”): December 22, 1990-December 23, 1995 (installed by direct election)
5) Wojciech Jaruzelski (communist Polish United Workers’ Party, “ex”-communist Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland): January 1-December 21, 1990 (installed by parliamentary election)
Prime ministers of “post”-communist Poland:
1) Donald Tusk (Solidarity-spawned Liberal Democratic Congress, communist-infiltrated Freedom Union, Civic Platform): November 16, 2007-present
2) Jarosław Kaczyński (Law and Justice, Center Agreement, Citizens’ Parliamentary Club/Solidarity Citizens’ Committee, communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”): July 14, 2006-November 16, 2007
3) Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (Law and Justice, Center Agreement, communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”): October 31, 2005-July 14, 2006
4) Marek Belka (communist-infiltrated Democratic Party): May 2, 2004-October 31, 2005
5) Leszek Miller (communist Polish United Workers’ Party, “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance): October 19, 2001-May 2, 2004
6) Jerzy Buzek (Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, related to communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”): October 31, 1997-October 19, 2001
7) Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz (“ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance): February 15, 1996-October 31, 1997
8) Józef Oleksy (communist Polish United Workers’ Party, “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance, alleged KGB agent): March 4, 1995-January 26, 1996
9) Waldemar Pawlak (communist-infiltrated Polish Peasant Party): October 26, 1993-March 1, 1995
10) Hanna Suchocka (communist-infiltrated Democratic Party): July 11, 1992-October 25, 1993
11) Waldemar Pawlak (communist-infiltrated Polish Peasant Party): June 5-July 10, 1992
12) Jan Olszewski (Movement for Reconstruction of Poland/League of Polish Families): December 6, 1991-June 5, 1992
13) Jan Krzysztof Bielecki (Civic Platform, Liberal Democratic Congress/Freedom Union, Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”): January 4-December 6, 1991
14) Tadeusz Mazowiecki (communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity,” communist-infiltrated Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Congress, Freedom Union, Democratic Union, communist-infiltrated Catholic lay organization Znak): August 24, 1989-January 4, 1991
Parliament of “post”-communist country: National Assembly, consisting of Sejm (lower house) and Senate (upper house)
Communist parties of “post”-communist Poland:
1) Anarchist-Communist Organizational Platform: This party was founded in 1997.
2) Anticapitalist Leftist Agreement (PLA): Founded in 2003, the PLA is an alliance of the NRL, KPP, Nowa Lewica, Lewicowa Alternatywa, and other parties.
3) REASON of Polish Left: Founded in 2002, this party operates under the leadership of Roman Kotlinsky and competes on lists of the Polish Labor Party. It initially registered on August 8, 2002 as the Anticlerical Progress Party REASON and acquired its current name on January 14, 2006. The party opposes the teaching of religion in public schools and state financial support for the Roman Catholic Church. In addition to advocating the separation of church and state, REASON promotes the role of women in public life, “sex education” in public schools, state-funded contraception, legalized abortions and euthanasia, and the legal recognition of same-sex “civil unions.”
4) Communist Workers’ Party of Poland (KPRP, 1918-1938): Poland’s original communist party was founded through a merger of Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania and the Polish Socialist Party-Left. The KPRP aided Jozef Pilsudski’s May 1926 Coup, by fighting alongside his Polish Socialist Party.
5) Communist Party of Poland (KPP, 1965): In 1965 the Polish Stalinist Kazimierz Mijal founded his own illegal communist party. In 1966 Mijal fled to Albania where he set up party operations in Tirana.
6) Communist Party of Poland (KPP, 2002) In July 2002 the Communist Party of Poland was revived under that name but the party is insignificant on the current Polish political scene. A split from the ZKP-P, the party operates under the leadership of Marcin Adam, a former member of the Polish Labor Party (PPP). The KPP (2002) competes on lists of the PPP.
7) Democratic Party of the Left (DPL): Founded in 2003 by a faction of the “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance, this party operates under the leadership of Elzbieta Wasiak.
8) Edward Gierek Movement of the Economic Revival: Founded in 2004, this left socialist party competes on lists of the “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance. Gierek was First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party between December 20, 1970 and September 5, 1980.
9) Group for a Workers’ Party: Founded in 2003 this Trotskyist party associates with the Committee for a Workers’ International.
10) Group of Workers’ Self-Government: Founded in 1983 this Trotskyist party operates under the leadership of Ludwig Hass.
11) Left Union of the Third Republic of Poland: Founded in 2005 by factions of UP and APP, this party operates under the leadership of Izabela Jaruga-Nowacka and competes on lists of the “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance.
12) Left without Censorship-Newspaper for a Revolutionary Communist Party: This organization intends to establish a party of radical left orientation.
13) Polish Labor Party (PPP): Founded in 2001 this party operates under the leadership of Daniel Tomasz Podrzycki.
14) Polish Party of the Working Class-Initiative Group (PPKR-GI): This party is Maoist in orientation.
15) Polish Socialist Party (PPS): Originally founded in 1892, the PPS was reorganized in 1987 by the left wing of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity,” under the leadership of Jan Jozef Lipski. This left socialist party competes on lists of the Polish Labor Party. PPS was one of the most important Polish left-wing political parties from its inception until 1948, when it split. At the time, part of the PPS merged with the Polish Workers’ Party to form the Polish United Workers’ Party, the ruling communist party of the People’s Republic of Poland, while the other branch joined Poland’s government in exile. The new PPS, however, exercises little influence. Józef Piłsudski, founder of the resurrected Polish state, was a prominent leader of the old PPS.
16) Polish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSPR): Founded in 2002 this party operates under the leadership of Edward Base.
17) Proletarian Platform (PP): Founded in 1990 as the Polish Spartacist Group, this Trotskyist party associates with the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist).
18) Red Collective-Left Alternative (CK-LA): Founded in 2004 this party is anarcho-syndicalist in orientation. 19) Revolutionary Left Current (NLR): Founded in 1987 this Trotskyist party associates with the United Secretariat of the Fourth International.
20) Socialism: Founded in 2001 this Trotskyist party associates with the International Marxist Tendency.
21) Struggling Revolutionary Group (WGR): This radical left party operates under the leadership of Iwo Czerniawski.
22) Workers’ Democracy (PD): This Trotskyist party associates with International Socialists.
Crypto-communist parties of “post”-communist Poland:
1) Civic (or Citizens’) Platform (PO): PO was founded in 2001 by Andrzej Olechowski, Maciej Plazynski, and Donald Tusk, sometimes referred to as “the Three Tenors” of Polish politics. The party was formerly a faction of Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, the political wing of the communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity.” — Olechowski’s political career began during Poland’s communist era as Department Director, Ministry of Foreign Economics Relations (1988-89); National Bank of Poland (1987-88); Economist, World Bank, Washington, DC (1985-87); Economic Affairs Officer, UNCTAD, Geneva (1982-84); and Department Head, Foreign Trade Research Institute (1978-82). After the “collapse” of communism, he was economic advisor to alleged secret police informer President Lech Walesa (1992-93; 1995). Olechowski subsequently left the party he co-founded. — Płażyński, born in 1958, is a Polish conservative-liberal politician who began his political career in 1980 as one of the leaders of the communist front Students’ Solidarity. Like Olechowski, he left the party he co-founded. — Tusk, born in 1957, was a prominent member of the Liberal Democratic Congress and then the Freedom Union, from which he resigned when he failed to win the party’s chairmanship in a race against “ex”-communist Bronisław Geremek. Tusk supports a free market economy and social conservatism. As of 2004 he has been a member of the Sejm.
2) Democratic Left Alliance (SLD): The SLD is an “ex”-communist, social democratic, pro-European Union political party. A coalition of parties used this name from 1991 to 1999, but the SLD was formally established as a single party on April 15, 1999 when the SLD absorbed Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (SdRP), the legal successor of the communist Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). With financial support from the soon-to-be-defunct Soviet Union, the SdRP and other leftist parties formed the original SLD coalition prior to Poland’s first free elections in October 1991. The president of SLD is former Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Wojciech Olejniczak, elected on May 29, 2005. Born in 1974, Olejniczak is the first president of the SLD who was not also a member of the PZPR. — Proposals to outlaw the SLD in view of its communist heritage have been a recurrent issue in Polish politics to this very day. Freedom Union (UW) spokesman Andrzej Potocki first proposed to outlaw the SLD in 1995 when Prime Minister Józef Oleksy’s alleged connections with the Soviet KGB were publicized. This is, in fact, the most commonly given grounds for criminalizing the SLD. In 2004 the proposal was reiterated by Law and Order chair and current Polish Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński and again in 2006 by League of Polish Families chair and Minister of Education Roman Giertych. — The rules for de-legalization of a party are provided in Article 13 of the Constitution of Poland: “Political parties and other organizations whose programs are based upon totalitarian methods and the modes of activity of Nazism, fascism and communism, as well as those whose programs or activities sanction racial or national hatred, the application of violence for the purpose of obtaining power or to influence the State policy, or provide for the secrecy of their own structure or membership, shall be prohibited.”
3) Democratic Party (SD): Founded in 1937 this communist-infiltrated social liberal party supported the United Polish Workers’ Party in the People’s Republic of Poland. The SD was reorganized on February 28, 2005 and formally established on May 9 as an “enlargement” of the Freedom Union, which it legally succeeds. This party competes on lists of the “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance. SD member Tadeusz Mazowiecki was the first non-communist prime minister in the Communist Bloc since the Second World War. Appointed to the position in August 1989, Mazowiecki also held membership in the communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity,” as well as the communist-infiltrated Catholic lay organizations Pax and Znak. — The communist-controlled Mazowiecki government was responsible for advancing the perestroika deception in Poland, the first communist state where this process occurred. Among other pseudo-reforms, Mazowiecki dissolved the Służba Bezpieczeństwa (secret political police), ZOMO (paramilitary riot police), and the centrally controlled economy; abolished censorship; and restored freedom of the press, speech, religion, and private property, as well as the free market and competition.
4) Freedom Union (UW): Ideologically liberal, UW was founded on March 20, 1994 through the merger of the Democratic Union (UD) and the Liberal Democratic Congress. The Democratic Union, in turn, was founded in 1990 by the communist-controlled Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki as a merger of the Citizens’ Movement Democratic Action and the Forum of Right Democrats. The Citizens’ Movement Democratic Action, in turn, was a faction of the communist front Solidarity Citizens’ Committee. UW merged into the communist-era puppet Democratic Party (SD) in 2005. — Prime Minister Mazowiecki’s economic reforms were supervised by economist Leszek Balcerowicz, who held membership in the communist Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR) between 1969 and 1981, and later the communist front Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity.” From September 1989 to August 1991 and also between October 31, 1997 and June 8, 2000 he held the positions of Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Poland. Between 1995 and 2000 Balcerowicz was chair of UW and on December 22, 2000 he became chair of the National Bank of Poland. He was also a columnist for Wprost, a popular Polish news magazine. On November 11, 2005, the President of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, awarded Balcerowicz with the country’s highest decoration, the Order of the White Eagle, for his contribution to Poland’s economic transformation. — Bronisław Geremek, who held membership in the PZPR between 1950 and 1968, was also a member of UW and before that an advisor to secret police informer President Lech Walesa. In 2004, on Poland’s accession to the European Union, Geremek was elected a Member of the European Parliament in 2004 on the UW ticket. He is now a member of the communist-infiltrated Democratic Party.
5) Law and Justice (PiS): This conservative party was founded in 2001 by the Kaczyński twins: Lech, current President of Poland, and Jarosław, current party president and Prime Minister of Poland. Most PiS members once associated with Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right and the Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland, whose members in the Sejm are elected from the League of Polish Families’ electoral committee. PiS, however, ultimately traces its origins to the communist front known as the Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity.” In 1990 two rival factions emerged from the Citizens’ Parliamentary Club (OKP)–the parliamentary faction of the Solidarity Citizens’ Committee, itself the semi-legal and then legal political wing of “Solidarity”–to play important roles in “post”-communist Polish politics. On May 12 the OKP’s conservative, populist faction emerged as the Center Agreement (PC) under the leadership of Jaroslaw. In 2001 Jarosław and Lech transformed the PC into PiS. While Jaroslaw was forming the PC, the liberal, “intellectual” faction of OKP, represented by “ex”-communist Bronisław Geremek, formed another party called Civic Movement “Democratic Action,” which later evolved into the Democratic Union, then the Freedom Union, and finally re-merged into the communist-era puppet Democratic Party in 2005.
6) Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (SdRP): In December 1989 the Sejm approved the communist regime’s program to transform Poland’s centrally planned economy to a free market, eliminated constitutional references to the communists’ “leading role,” and renamed the country as the “Republic of Poland.” The ruling Polish United Workers’ Party restyled itself in January 1990 as Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland. Most property of the former communist party was expropriated by the state. Among the creators of SdRP were “ex”-communist Aleksander Kwaśniewski, President of Poland between 1995 and 2005; “ex”-communist Józef Oleksy, prime minister between 1995 and 1996; and “ex”-communist Leszek Miller, prime minister between 2001 and 2004. The SdRP’s activities were absorbed into the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) on April 15, 1999 when the SLD, formerly an alliance of leftist parties, merged into one organization.
7) Social Democratic Party of Poland (SDPL): The SDPL is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from the “ex”-communist Democratic Left Alliance. The party leader is Marek Borowski.
8) Solidarity Citizens’ Committee (KOS): Also known as the Citizens’ Electoral Committee and, before that, the Citizens’ Committee with Lech Wałęsa, KOS was the semi-legal and then legal political wing of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity,” which according to KGB defector Anatoliy Golitsyn in New Lies for Old (1984) contained more than two million active communist party members. Formed on December 18, 1988, KOS became a national movement that attracted the majority of supporters of radical political change in the country following the conclusion of the communist-manipulated Round Table talks (February 6 to April 4, 1989). Those KOS candidates who won seats in the Sejm organized themselves as the Citizens’ Parliamentary Club (OKP), which elected “ex”-communist Bronisław Geremek as chairman. On August 25, 1989, the new communist-dominated “Contract Sejm” elected the KOS candidate Tadeusz Mazowiecki as the Soviet Bloc’s first-ever non-communist prime minister. The presidency remained in the hands of the communists.
9) Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right (AWSP): Founded in 1996, the AWSP was a coalition of more than 30 parties, including liberals, conservatives, and Christian democrats. The leading party within the AWSP was the Social Movement for Solidarity Electoral Action which, like the earlier Solidarity Citizens’ Committee, was the political wing of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity.” Marian Krzaklewski was the first AWSP chairman. The party became defunct after losing the 2001 parliamentary election. The International Republican Institute (IRI), a government-funded organization loosely associated with the US Republican Party, claims that it played a behind-the-scenes role in uniting the different political parties that formed the AWSP. The IRI apparently provided training in political campaigning and communications training, and coordinating an advertising campaign for the Polish government in order to prevent the AWSP splitting up over internal tensions. Reforms relating to domestic affairs, the entry to NATO in 1999, and the accession process to the European Union provoked conflicts within the coalition. As a result, many members moved to Civic Platform, Law and Justice, or the Movement for Reconstruction of Poland.
Russian military presence: Soviet troops occupied eastern Poland on September 17, 1939, were repelled during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, and later occupied Warsaw on January 17, 1945. The first division of the Soviet Army withdrew from Poland on April 10, 1991.
Pictured here: The pope who facilitated Moscow’s perestroika deception. Mr. Wojtyla receives Solidarity leader Walesa at the Vatican in January 1981. Pictured below: Pope John Paul II and Polish President Alexander Kwasniewski with his wife Jolanta Kwasniewska.
KGB Defector Golitsyn Exposes Solidarity as Communist Front
In his first book New Lies for Old (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1984) KGB defector Anatoliy Golitsyn reveals the crucial role that Solidarity played in advancing communism’s perestroika deception in Poland.
Kania himself revealed that there were 1 million communist party members in Solidarity. Forty-two out of the 200 members of the party’s Central Committee in 1981 were Solidarity members. Bogdan Lis, Walesa’s deputy, was a Central Committee member. Zofia Gryzb, another Solidarity leader, was a member of the Politburo.
These leaders were not expelled from the party for their membership in Solidarity. On the contrary, Solidarity recognized the leading role of the party and the party recognized Solidarity’s existence. Kania and Moczar even made statements in favor of it. Solidarity enjoyed access to the state-controlled media. Obstacles were not placed in the way of Walesa’s extensive foreign travels; indeed, the Polish ambassador to Japan, who defected after the introduction of martial law, assisted in arranging Walesa’s contacts with Japanese trade unions (pages 331-332).
As with the “Prague spring” of 1968, the motives for the Polish “renewal” were a combination of the internal and external. Internally it was designed to broaden the political base of the communist party in the trade unions and to convert the narrow, elitist dictatorship of the party into a Leninist dictatorship of the whole working class that would revitalize the Polish political and economic system. The “renewal” followed the lines of Lenin’s speech to the Comintern congress in July 1921. “Our only strategy at present,” said Lenin, “is to become stronger and therefore wiser, more reasonable, more opportunistic. The more opportunistic, the sooner will you assemble the masses around you. When we have won over the masses by our reasonable approach, we shall then apply offensive tactics in the strictest sense of the word” (pages 332-333).
The origin of the Solidarity movement in a shipyard bearing Lenin’s name, the singing of the “Internationale,” the use of the old slogan “Workers of the world, unite” by Solidarity members, and the constant presence of Lenin’s portrait are all consistent with concealed party guidance of the organization. Without that guidance and help, the discipline of Solidarity and its record of successful negotiation with the Polish government would have been impossible. The party’s concealed influence in the Polish Catholic Church ensured that the church would act as a force for moderation and compromise between Solidarity and the government.
Externally the strategic objectives behind the creation of Solidarity resemble those behind the “Prague spring.” In brief, they were to deceive Western governments, politicians, and public opinion generally as to the real nature of contemporary communism in Poland in accordance with the weakness and evolution pattern of disinformation. More specifically, the intention was to use Solidarity to promote united action with free trade unions, social democrats, Catholics, and other religious groups to further the aims of communist strategy in the advanced countries, and to a lesser extent in the Third World. The name Solidarity is itself symbolic of this intention, which was made plain by Walesa’s state-sponsored visits to trade unions in France, Italy, and Japan and to the Holy See.
Solidarity’s effort to strengthen its international ties was part of a wider effort by the international communist movement to press forward with its strategy (page 333).
The creation of Solidarity and the initial period of its activity as a trade union may be regarded as the experimental first phase of the Polish “renewal.” The appointment of Jaruzelski, the imposition of martial law, and the suspension of Solidarity represent the second phase, intended to bring the movement under firm control and to provide a period of political consolidation (page 334).
With remarkable foresight—writing in 1980 and publishing in 1984—Golitsyn predicts the formation of the communist-led coalition government containing Solidarity. This prediction, in fact, came to pass in 1989 when the communist-controlled dissident and Solidarity member Tadeusz Mazowiecki was appointed as the Soviet Bloc’s first non-communist prime minister:
In the third phase it may be expected that a coalition government will be formed, comprising representatives of the communist party, of a revived Solidarity movement, and of the church. A few so-called liberals might also be included.
A new-style government of this sort in Eastern Europe would be well equipped to promote communist strategy by campaigning for disarmament, for nuclear-free zones in Europe, perhaps for a revival of the Rapacki Plan, for the simultaneous dissolution of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and ultimately for the establishment of a neutral, socialist Europe (page 334).
Golitsyn exposes the ultimate purpose of the “Polish renewal”:
A coalition government in Poland would in fact be totalitarianism under a new, deceptive, and more dangerous guise. Accepted as the spontaneous emergence of a new form of multiparty, semi-democratic regime, it would serve to undermine resistance to communism inside and outside the communist bloc (page 335).