>Republic of Cyprus (1960)
Type of state: Multiparty with democratically elected communist government
President of Cyprus: Dimitris Christofias (Progressive Party of Working People, AKEL): February 29, 2008-present (previously President of House of Representatives, 2001-2008)
1) Progressive Party of Working People, 2001-present
2) Presidency of George Vasiliou (independent candidacy in 1988 supported by AKEL), 1988-1993
3) Presidency of Archbishop Makarios III (“Castro of the Mediterranean,” pro-communist, pro-Non-Aligned Movement, independent), 1960-1974
Socialist International presence: Movement for Social Democracy (supported Christofias’ 2008 presidential bid)
Communist parties: Progressive Party of Working People
Communist insurgency: none
1) During the 2001 parliamentary election the Marxist-Leninist Progressive Party of Working People obtained the largest number of seats and AKEL General Secretary Dimitris Christofias was elected President of the House of Representatives. Christofias was re-elected to this post in 2006 and remained in this office until he was elected President of Cyprus in February 2008. AKEL holds membership in the Coordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain, a bureau of the Communist Party of Britain. Educated in the old Soviet Union, President Christofias is pro-Moscow, as the following Voice of Russia report from March 26, 2008 reveals: “President of Cyprus Dimitris Christofias believes that exemplary relations have been adjusted between Cyprus and Russia. In an interview with Hellas journal published in Russia he expressed gratitude to Russian leaders for continuous support in the Cyprus issue. Since 1974, after the Turkish troop invasion, Cyprus was divided into two parts.”
2) George Vasos Vasiliou, President of Cyprus between 1988 and 1993, founded the United Democrats, a merger of the Movement of Free Democrats and ADISOK, which consisted of “former” AKEL members. Vasiliou’s father Vasos sat on the Central Committee of AKEL and fought on the side of the rebels in the Hellenic Civil War, in which communist insurgents attempted to take over Greece following the Second World War. After the civil war, Vasiliou’s family settled in Eastern Europe.
3) Several parties operating in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which was created by Turkey in 1983 and is recognized only by that country, appear to have a communist orientation, including the Communal Liberation Party, New Cyprus Party, and Republican Turkish Party, which presently controls the TRNC government. Following the Turkish invasion in 1975, the TRNC was known as the Turkish Federative State of North Cyprus. Cypriot President Christofias advocates the reunification of the northern and southern sections of the island.
Republic of India (1947)
Type of state: Single-party dominant state with democratically elected communist government
Prime Minister of India: Manmohan Singh (Indian National Congress): May 22, 2004-present
President of India: Pratibha Patil (Indian National Congress): July 25, 2007-present
1) United Progressive Alliance (consisting of Indian National Congress (social democratic), Rashtriya Janata Dal, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Nationalist Congress Party, Pattali Makkal Katchi, Telangana Rashtra Samithi, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Lok Jan Shakti Party, Indian Union Muslim League, Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party, Republican Party of India (Athvale), Republican Party of India (Gavai), All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimen, and Kerala Congress (split from INC)), with support from Left Front (consisting of Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Revolutionary Socialist Party, and All India Forward Bloc), 2004-present
2) National Front (consisting of Janata Dal with support from Bharatiya Janata Party and Communist Party of India (Marxist)), 1989-1991
Socialist International presence: Janata Dal (observer)
Communist parties: Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Revolutionary Socialist Party, All India Forward Bloc
Communist insurgency: Communist Party of India (Maoist) (“Naxalites”), numerous other Marxist groups
1) The Left Front supports the Indian Government through the United Progressive Alliance-Left Coordination Committee, and governs the states of West Bengal and Tripura.
2) In West Bengal the Left Front consists of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Revolutionary Socialist Party, All India Forward Bloc, Revolutionary Communist Party of India, Marxist Forward Bloc, West Bengal Socialist Party, Democratic Socialist Party, and Biplobi Bangla Congress.
3) The Left Democratic Front (LDF) is one of the two major alliances that dominates politics in the state of Kerala. Since 2001 the LDF has been in opposition in the state legislative assembly. The LDF consists of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Janata Dal, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Kerala Congress (Joseph), and National Congress Party.
4) The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was formerly allied with Sri Lanka’s insurgent Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
5) The Pattali Makkal Katchi holds membership in the Tamil Nadu-based political front Democratic Progressive Alliance, in which the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, and Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) are also members.
6) The IUML joined other parties in deposing the first communist government in Kerala in 1959. In 1967, however, the IUML entered a regional united front led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), which governed the state of Kerala. Additional members of the front included the Communist Party of India (CPI), Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Peasants’ and Workers’ Party, Kerala Socialist Party (KSP), and Samyukta Socialist Party. In 1969 the IUML left the CPI-Marxist-led government and participated in the formation of a new government led by the CPI, along with the RSP, KSP, and Kerala Congress.
7) Indian intelligence and Maoist leaders estimate that the Maoist insurgency in India, which operates under the command of the Communist Party of India (Maoist), boasts as many as 20,000 guerrillas who are active in 13 states from the southern tip of India to the border of Nepal, where another Maoist insurgency is raging. Maoist insurgents hold territory in approximately 150 of India’s 600 districts. A communist rebellion occurred in the Indian town of Naxalbari, in 1968, but was suppressed. India’s current Maoist insurgency is known as the Naxalite Movement and its members as Naxalites.
8) According to the South Asia Intelligence Review, Nepalese Maoists established links with the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People’s War, or People’s War Group, and Maoist Communist Centre in India in or before 1989. Together they established the “Revolutionary Corridor” or “Compact Revolutionary Zone” (CRZ), which extends from Nepal across six Indian states, including Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The CRZ was organized in 2001 by Nepalese and Indian members of the Naxalite Movement in a meeting at Siliguri, West Bengal.
9) Founded in 2001, the Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia includes the following Indian communist parties: Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Naxalbari), Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), Revolutionary Communist Centre of India (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist), Revolutionary Communist Centre of India (Maoist) (RCCI(M)), and Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People’s War (CPI(M-L)(PW)), or People’s War Group. In 2003 the RCCI(M) and the MCC merged and became the MCCI. The following year, the MCCI and the CPI(M-L) (PW) merged and became the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
Republic of Indonesia (1949)
Type of state: Multiparty with history of military dictatorship prior to 1998
President of Indonesia: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (Democratic Party, pancasilaism): October 20, 2004-present
Vice President of Indonesia: Jusuf Kalla (Golkar, pancasilaism): October 20, 2004-present
1) Indonesian National Party with support of Communist Party of Indonesia, 1960-1965
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: banned
Communist insurgency: Communist Party of Indonesia (defunct)
1) Founded in 1914 as the Indies Social Democratic Association, the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) was banned in 1927 by the Dutch colonial administration, emerged from hibernation after the Japanese military occupation in 1945, and joined nationalist leader Sukarno in the overthrow of the colonial government in 1948.
2) The People’s Democratic Front (FDR), consisting of the PKI, Socialist Youth of Indonesia (Pesindo), which was the armed youth wing of the PKI, Socialist Party of Indonesia, Labour Party and the Farmers’ Union participated in the anti-colonial Indonesian National Revolution, as well as the Madiun Uprising. After the signing of the Renville Agreement in 1948, in which The Netherlands recognized the new Republic of Indonesia, the PKI’s guerrilla units and militias were ordered to disband. In Madiun, East Java, one PKI militia unit refused to disarm and was destroyed by the new Indonesian army. The incident incited a violent uprising among leftists. According to official military sources, on September 18 the PKI had proclaimed a “Soviet Republic of Indonesia” with PKI leader Musso as its president and FDR member Amir Sjarifuddin, who was in fact briefly prime minister of the new republic after independence, as its prime minister.
3) Nationalist leader Sukarno was an advocate of “guided democracy” and pancasilaism, which is essentially Indonesian national communism, consisting of “five pillars”: nationalism, internationalism, representative democracy, social justice with a Marxist orientation, and theism with a secular orientation. Pancasilaism is the official ideology of the Republic of Indonesia. Today the ruling Democratic Party and Party of the Functional Groups (“Golkar”) embrace pancasilaism.
4) In August 1959 Sukarno addressed the PKI congress in which he invited communist participation in the government of Indonesia. During his speech, Sukarno promoted the slogan “Nasakom,” an abbreviation of “nasionalisme” (nationalism), “agama” (religion) and “comunisme” (communism). Between 1962 and 1965 Sukarno formally welcomed PKI members into his government. Sukarno forged alliances with the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and opposed the British-sponsored Federation of Malaysia.
5) Rightist elements in the Indonesian Armed Forces, however, feared an incipient communist insurgency. On September 30, 1965 six of Indonesia’s generals were murdered. To this day communist sympathizers contend that the deaths of these generals, an incident known as the September 30 Movement and popularly abbreviated as “G30S,” were in reality a military provocation. At the time 2,000 PKI cadres were in fact training at Halim Air Force Base, allegedly for the purpose of opposing Malaysian independence. On September 8 PKI demonstrators orchestrated a two-day siege of the United States consulate in Surabaya.
6) A military coup under the leadership of Major General Haji Mohammad Soeharto promptly rebanned the PKI and tens of thousands of communists and their supporters were executed in what some observers label a “genocide.” Soeharto governed Indonesia as president from 1968 to 1998. As of 2004 the ban against communism in Indonesia was still effective. Prior to its second suppression, the PKI was the third largest communist party in the world, after the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China. In the 1955 parliamentary election, the PKI came fourth with 16 per cent of the votes, winning 39 out of 257 seats.
7) In 2003 President Megawati Sukaroputri of Indonesia, the daughter of President Sukarno, visited Moscow and signed a Declaration on the Basic Principles of Friendly Relations of Partnership between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Indonesia. The joint construction of the Biak Island rocket base is probably a development flowing from the strategic partnership between Russia and Indonesia.
Republic of Iraq (1932)
Type of state: Multiparty with democratically elected Islamo-leftist government under US and allied military occupation
Prime Minister of Iraq: Nouri al-Maliki (Islamic Dawa Party): May 20, 2006-present
President of Iraq: Jalal Talabani (Kurdistan Democratic Party, Patriotic Union of Kurdistan): April 7, 2005-present
1) Kurdistan Regional Government, under control of Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan (consisting of Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (Socialist International), Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq (Socialist International), Kurdistan Communist Party, Kurdistan Islamic Union, Kurdistan Democratic Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic National Party, Democratic Baith-Nahrain Party, Assyrian Patriotic Party, Chaldean Democratic Union, and Kurdistan Toilers’ Party (split from Kurdistan Socialist Party of Iraq)), 2005-present
2) Iraqi Governing Council, including Iraqi Communist Party member Hamid Majid Mousa, 2003-2004
3) National Front, consisting of Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party and Iraqi Communist Party, 1973-1979
4) Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, 1968-1973, 1979-2003
5) Military officer Abdul Salam Arif with support of Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party and party ideologist Ali Salih al-Sa’di, a pro-Soviet Marxist, 1963
6) Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim’s (Nasser-inspired) Free Officers Movement overthrows Iraqi monarchy in July 14 Revolution, supported by Iraqi Communinist Party, 1958-1963
Socialist International presence: Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (observer), Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq
Communist parties: Iraqi Communist Party, Kurdistan Communist Party (regional)
Communist insurgency: Kurdistan Workers’ Party (camps based in northern Iraq)
1) The United Iraqi Alliance consists of the Islamic Da’awa Party (IDP), Islamic Virtue Party, Centrist Coalition Party, Bader Organization, Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, Turkman Islamic Union of Iraq, Justice and Equality Assembly, Iraqi Democratic Movement, Movement of Hizbullah in Iraq, Turkmen Loyalty Movement, Saed Al Shuhada Islamic Movement, Al Shabak Democratic Gathering, Malhan Al Mkoter, Islamic Da’awa Party-Iraq Organization, Reform and Building Meeting, Al Sadriah Advertising, Justice Community and Iraq Ahrar. The current Prime Minister of Iraq is Ibrahim al-Jaafari of the IDP.
2) The Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan consists of the PUK, Kurdish Democratic Party, Islamic Group of Kurdistan, Kurdistan Communist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Socialist Party, Chaldean Democratic Union, Kurdistan Toilers’ Party and Iraqi Turkmen Brotherhood Party. In December 2005 the Kurdistan Islamic Union, which is the Kurdish branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, defected from the alliances. The current President of Iraq is Jalal Talabani of the PUK.
3) As of March 2006 the future of Iraq is uncertain as the country faces civil war between Sunni and Shia Muslim Iraqis, and a sustained insurgency directed against the US-led military occupation and supported by Iran, Syria and the Russian Federation.
4) Founded in 1934, the ICP suffered a split in 1967 when the ICP-Central Command defected and instigated an armed struggle against Ba’thist regime. The ICP entered into the National Front coalition with the Ba’thist regime between 1973 and 1979. Subsequently the ICP endured regular persecution until the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s dictatorship in 2003. Hamid Majid Mousa, a member of the ICP, sat on the Iraqi Governing Council between 2003 and 2004. The ICP holds membership in the Coordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain, a bureau of the Communist Party of Britain.
Republic of Korea, or South Korea (1948)
Type of state: Multiparty democracy with history of single-party nationalist dictatorship under US military occupation
President of Republic of Korea: Lee Myung-bak (Grand National Party, center-right): February 25, 2008-present
Prime Minister of Republic of Korea: Han Seung-soo (United New Democratic Party, center-left): February 29, 2008-present
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front (banned)
1) The current President of the Republic of Korea Lee Myung-bak supports engagement with the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea), as well as strong relations with the USA. The previous President Roh Moo-hyun was committed to advancing the Sunshine Policy, which was formulated by his predecessor Kim Dae-Jung and constitutes the South Korean Government’s foreign policy towards North Korea. Implemented in 1998, the Sunshine Policy promotes peaceful cooperation between the two states within the framework for reunification in the future. Critics contend that the policy naively overlooks the essentially belligerent character of the communist regime in North Korea and has done little more than continue to breathe life into the paleo-communist regime of Kim Jong-il.
2) North Korea is committed to the unification of the two Koreas on communist terms. The two Koreas are still in a state of war, the 1953 armistice not in itself being a peace treaty. The Demilitarized Zone is often touted as the last frontier of the Cold War. The Korean War was in effect a proxy war between, in the one camp, the United States and its allies, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the Philippines, all of which operated under the aegis of the United Nations, and, in the other camp, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Soviet Union and North Korea. The PRC supported the North Korean Armed Forces with its People’s Volunteer Army, a euphemism for the People’s Liberation Army.
3) The Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front (AINDF) is an illegal South Korean front for the Workers’ Party of Korea, the ruling communist party in North Korea. In 1964 the party was founded as a preparatory committee, in 1969 the Revolutionary Party for Reunification was organized, and changed its name in 1985 to the National Democratic Front for South Korea after merging with the Strategic Liberation Party of South Korea. The AINDF, as well as all other communist activities, are banned under South Korea’s National Security Law, but the AINDF maintains a mission in Pyongyang, as well as in Japan.
4) Chun Doo-hwan was the President of South Korea between 1980 and 1988. During Chun’s visit to Rangoon, Burma, now Yangon, Myanmar, in 1983, four remote-controlled bombs exploded at the Martyrs’ Mausoleum. The explosions killed 13 of Chun’s top aides and four cabinet ministers, who had already arrived at the site, while Chun himself narrowly escaped death. An elite unit of North Korean military intelligence, members of which were apprehended as they endeavored to flee Burma, was implicated in this terrorist attack that almost entirely annihilated the South Korean Government.
Republic of Lebanon (1943)
Type of state: Multiparty with democratically elected communist government, and long history of civil war and Syrian and Israeli military occupation
Prime Minister of Lebanon: Fouad Siniora (Future Movement, March 14 Alliance): July 19, 2005-present
President of Lebanon: Michel Suleiman (independent, pro-Hezbollah, former commander of Lebanese Armed Forces): May 25, 2008-present
1) March 14 Alliance (including pro-Moscow Progressive Socialist Party and Democratic Left, splinter group from Lebanese Communist Party), 2005-present
2) Syrian-backed National Salvation Front, organized by Prime Minister Rashid Karami (Sunni Muslim; Nasserist, pro-Palestinian), Suleiman Frangieh (ex-Lebanese Forces, pro-Syrian), and Walid Jumblatt (leftist); supported by Christians loyal to Frangieh, Progressive Socialist Party, Lebanese Communist Party, Syrian Social Nationalist Party, and Lebanese Resistance Detachments (“Amal,” Shia Muslim), 1984-1987
3) Soviet-backed governments of leftist Prime Minister Rashid Karami, 1975-1976, 1969-1970, 1966-1968, 1965-1966, 1961-1964, 1958-1960, 1955-1956
Socialist International presence: Progressive Socialist Party
Communist parties: Arab Socialist Action Party-Lebanon (radical left), Democratic Left, Lebanese Communist Party, Popular Democratic Party, Progressive Socialist Party, Syrian Social Nationalist Party (neofascist with Marxist wing), Union of Communists Marxists-Leninists, numerous Nasserist (Arab socialist) groups
Communist insurgency: Revolutionary Communist Group, Organization of Communist Action in Lebanon (linked to Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine)
1) Prior to the Lebanese Civil War between 1975 and 1990, Lebanon was a peaceful country known as the “Switzerland of the Middle East” and its capital Beirut as the “Paris of the Middle East.” Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, however, more than 110,000 Palestinian refugees settled in Lebanon and by 1975 they numbered more than 300,000. Egyptian-born KGB agent Yassir Arafat’s communist-dominated Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) assumed control of the settlers’ political and military activities.
2) During the civil war two political blocs were initially engaged in combat, the United Christian Lebanese Front (UCLF) and the secular-Islamic Lebanese National Movement (LNM), both of which initially opposed the influx of Palestinian refugees. Syria, like Israel, initially supported the UCLF, although the Ba’athist regime in Damascus generally sympathized with the Palestinian cause vis-à-vis Israel. The UCLF later disintegrated due to factional fighting between the Phalangists and Marada Brigade. The conflict’s “left-right” ideological schism replicated that of the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s.
3) Founded in 1969, the LNM evolved from the Front for Progressive Parties and National Forces, a leftist organization that embraced parties and organizations opposing the Maronite Catholic-dominated political system of Lebanon. In general, Druze and Sunni Muslims supported the LNM and sympathized with the Palestinian refugees. The LNM operated under the leadership of Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) founder Kamal Jumblatt until his murder in 1977. Jumblatt’s death is attributed to the neofascist Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), acting on behalf of Syrian intelligence, even though Jumblatt, acting as Prime Minister Karami’s Interior Minister legalized both the SSNP and Lebanese Communist Party in 1970. Following Jumblatt’s murder the LNM disintegrated. However, initially it consisted of the PSP, SSNP, Lebanese Communist Party, Organization of Communist Action in Lebanon, Lebanese Ba’ath Party (neofascist), Independent Nasserite Movement, and two members of the Rejectionist Front, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, which was later renamed the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The INM’s paramilitary wing was the al-Murabitun Militia. As fighting escalated, the LNM affiliated with the PLO.
4) One cached online source relates that during Prime Minister Karami’s seventh government (1975-1976), formed shortly after the civil war erupted in April 1975: “The Soviet ambassador to Lebanon met almost every day with [Interior Minister] Kamal Jumblatt, George Hawi, president of the Lebanese Communist Party, Mohsen Ibrahim, chairman of the Organization of the Lebanese Communist Action and Inaam Raad, leader of the Marxist wing of the PSNS [Syrian Social Nationalist Party]. Later Kamal declared: “Our friendship for the USSR and the communist world was unwavering . . . The Soviet Union remains for us the only guarantee of an independent Lebanon, the faithful support of the Palestinian movement, and also the defender of the Liberation movements around the world, including our Lebanese National Movement.”
5) The UCLF consisted of the neofascist Kataeb (Phalangist) Party, under the leadership of Pierre Gemayel (Maronite Catholic), the Marada Brigade under the leadership of Suleiman Franjieh (Maronite Catholic), the National Liberal Party (NLP) under the leadership of Camille Chamoun (Maronite Catholic), and the neofascist Lebanese Renewal Party (LRP) under the leadership of Etienne Saqr. The Lebanese Forces (LF) were the military wing of the UCLF, while the Phalangists were specifically the militia of the Kataeb Party, the Tigers specifically the militia of the NLP, and the Guardians of the Cedars, which attracted Maronite Catholics, Druze, and Shia Muslims, specifically the militia of the LRP.
6) In 1976 the Maronite Catholic-dominated government faced overthrow by the invading Palestinian forces. President Suleiman Frangieh called for Syrian intervention. Syrian forces occupied northern Lebanon in 1976, while Israel briefly invaded Lebanon in 1978 and then reinvaded and occupied the southern part of the country in 1982. Israel withdrew her troops in 2000, while Syria withdrew her troops in 2005.
7) The Taif Agreement in 1989 brought the civil war to a near cessation, but Hezbollah, a Shia Muslim group that organized during the course of the war, instigated a campaign of terror against the Israeli occupation of Lebanon. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people died in the Lebanese Civil War, another 100,000 were handicapped by injuries, as many as 900,000 people were displaced from their homes, and 250,000 people emigrated.
8) Postwar Lebanon’s political parties are, like prewar politics, confessional-based. The Kataeb Party, National Bloc, National Liberal Party, Lebanese Forces (which is now a political party), Free Patriotic Movement, and Guardians of the Cedars (which is banned), attract support from Maronite Catholics and other Christians. Amal (Lebanese Resistance Detachments) and Hezbollah (Party of God) attract support from Shia Muslims, while the Progressive Socialist Party attracts support from the Druze. Sunni Muslims generally support the Independent Nasserite Movement, Tawhid (Islamic Unification Movement), Ahbash (Association of Islamic Charitable Projects), and various Ba’athist, socialist, and communist parties.
9) Former enemies in the Lebanese Civil War are currently operating in political alliances. The ruling March 14 Alliance, for example, consists of the Future Movement, Progressive Socialist Party, Lebanese Forces, Qornet Shehwan Gathering (itself consisting of the Kataeb Party, Maronite League, National Liberal Party, Independence Movement, and independents), and the Tripoli Bloc (itself consisting of Democratic Renewal, the Democratic Left and independents). The Democratic Left, in turn, consists of dissenters from the Lebanese Communist Party. Amal, Hezbollah, and the SSNP are currently allied under the Resistance and Development Bloc. The Free Patriotic Movement, Skaff Bloc, and Murr Bloc form the Change and Reform Bloc, the third and last bloc in the Lebanese National Assembly, last elected in June 2005.
10) In 2005, after a decade of relative political stability, several assassinations occurred in Lebanon. On February 14 former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri died in a car-bomb explosion, widely attributed to Syrian military intelligence. On June 2 journalist and historian Samir Kassir, founding member of the “ex”-communist Democratic Left, was assassinated by a car bomb. Less that one month later, on June 21, George Hawi, former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party, was also assassinated by a car bomb.
11) The last President of Lebanon, General Émile Geamil Lahoud, who stepped down in November 2007, is considered by some to be a Syrian puppet.
12) From the 1948 to 1965 the Lebanese Communist Party was banned, but in the latter year joined the Front for Progressive Parties and National Forces, which evolved into the LNM in 1969. The LCP was slavishly pro-Soviet and, despite its Christian membership, supported the Palestinian cause. Apart from its participation in the civil war with its well-trained militia, the Popular Guard, the LCP’s influence has waned in Lebanon since the 1980s.
Republic of Maldives (1965)
(formerly Sultanate of Maldives before 1968)
Type of state: Single-party dominant
President of Maldives: Mohamed Nasheed (Maldivian Democratic Party): November 11, 2008-present
Socialist International presence: No legal parties before 2005
Communist parties: No legal parties before 2005
Communist insurgency: none
1) The Maldives’ current nonpartisan national legislature was elected on January 22, 2005. The parliament voted unanimously for the formation of a multiparty system on June 2. Four political parties are registered in the Maldives: Maldivian People’s Party (MPP), Maldivian Democratic Party, Islamic Democratic Party (Maldives) and Justice Party (Maldives). The chair of the MPP is Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who has been President of the Maldives since 1978.
Republic of The Philippines (1946)
Type of state: Unstable multiparty democracy with past history of dictatorship
President of The Philippines: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos, Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino; center-right): January 20, 2001-present
Vice President of The Philippines: Noli de Castro (Coalition of Truth and Experience for Tomorrow, including Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino; independent): June 30, 2004-present
Socialist International presence: Akbayan! Citizens’ Action Party (consultative), Philippine Democratic Socialist Party (consultative)
Communist parties: Communist Party of the Philippines-1930 (original party, PKP-1930), Communist Party of the Philippines (Maoist split from original PKP), National Democratic Front of the Philippines (PKP front)
Communist insurgency: New People’s Army (armed wing of PKP)
1) The original Communist Party of the Philippines (PKP) was founded in 1930 as a split from the Progressive Workers’ Party. Between 1932 and 1937 the PKP was banned but later merged with the legal Socialist Party in 1938. PKP candidates participated in the Popular Front in order to contest the 1940 municipal elections. The PKP elected six mayors on the island of Luzon.
2) During the Second World War the PKP organized the working and peasant classes in an armed resistance against the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. The insurgent army was known as the Hukbalahap (“People’s Army Against Japan”). Following the defeat of the Japanese Empire in August 1945, the PKP formed the Congress of Labor Organizations and the PKP participated in the 1946 presidential elections as part of the Democratic Alliance.
3) Banned again in 1948 the PKP redirected the focus of its insurgent activities away from the Japanese occupiers and toward the US-supported Philippine Government. In 1950 the PKP formed the People’s Liberation Army (Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, or “Huk”), consisting of 10,000 guerrillas. In the same year authorities arrested the secretariat of the PKP Central Committee, including General Secretary Jose Lava, who was incarcerated for 20 years. As a result of the armed resistance, the PKP and the Huk sustained numerous casualties and by 1954 the insurgency was effectively suppressed.
4) While the PKP was pro-Soviet, in 1968 a pro-Beijing faction established another group, also called the Communist Party of the Philippines, displacing the original PKP in terms of popularity. The original but smaller pro-Soviet faction is now known as PKP-1930. The newer and larger PKP is a member of the Maoist International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations and it directs a broad revolutionary organization, the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP). The first PKP leader was Jose Maria Sison, who lives in exile in the Netherlands. Dutch police arrested Sison on August 28, 2007 on the charge of masterminding the murder of two former leaders of the New People’s Army, but was subsequently released.
5) The PKP’s armed wing is the New People’s Army (NPA), which replaced the old Huk resistance movements of the Second World War and postwar eras. The NPA gained impetus during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986), who campaigned under the banner of the Nationalist Party. Between 1972 and 1981 Marcos implemented martial law and assumed dictatorial powers to suppress the communist insurgency.
6) The Philippine Government and other major Western governments classify the NPA as a terrorist organization. The NPA operates primarily in the countryside and targets for assassination politicians, military and police officers, landlords and business owners, and sometimes US citizens residing in the Philippines. In 1989 the NPA claimed responsibility for the murder of US Army Colonel Nick Rowe, who was part of a military assistance program to the Philippine Armed Forces. On September 5, 2007 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Amnesty Proclamation 1377 for members of the PKP, the NPA, the NDFP, and other communist rebel groups.
7) Along with the PKP and the NPA, the NDFP consists of the Revolutionary Council of Trade Unions, National Association of Peasants, Patriotic Youth, Patriotic Movement of New Women, Cordillera People’s Democratic Front, Christians for National Liberation, Association of Patriotic Teachers, Artists and Writers for the People, Patriotic Government Employees, Patriotic Health Association, League of Scientists for the People, Federation of Labor Organizations, Council of Lawyers for the People, Moro Revolutionary Organization, and Revolutionary Organization of Lumads.
8) In addition to the NPA, several Islamo-Marxist insurgent armies operate in the Philippines, including the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). The latter is linked to al-Qaeda and Indonesia’s Jemaah Islamiyah.
9) Terry Nichols, who along with Timothy McVeigh, was convicted for plotting the 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing, travelled on many occasions to the Philippines. Nichols renounced his US citizenship and married a Filipina, Lana Padilla, whose family was known to have connections with the ASG. McVeigh was executed in 2001.
10) Writing in The New American (July 1, 2002), William F. Jasper exposes Nichols’ connections to the ASG and Ramzi Yousef, the convicted mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing:
“According to the signed statement of confessed Abu Sayyaf terrorist Edwin Angeles, he met in Davao City on the Philippine island of Mindanao in 1991 with Nichols, Yousef and other co-conspirators in the 1993 WTC bombing. Angeles, aka Ibrahim Yakub, a co-founder and second-in-command of the Abu Sayyaf Group, said in his handwritten statement: ‘I certify that Terry Nichols was known to me personally during our meeting with Abdul Hakim Murad, Wali-Khan and Ahmed Youssef [Ramzi Yousef] in [unintelligible] Davao City on Nov. 1991; Aim to establish a group and organize a Muslim and non-Muslim youth for a cause; we will also to [sic] plan for following: bombing activities; providing firearms and ammo; training in bomb making and handling . . .’”
Republic of Singapore (1965)
(formerly a state in the Federation of Malaysia, 1962)
Type of state: Single-party social democratic dictatorship
Prime Minister of Singapore: Lee Hsien Loong (People’s Action Party): August 12, 2004-present
President of Singapore: Sellapan Ramanathan (civil servant): September 1, 1999-present
Socialist International presence: People’s Action Party (former member)
Communist parties: undetermined
Communist insurgency: none
1) Like the Kuomintang in Taiwan, the PAP is a nationalist authoritarian party that was originally organized along Leninist party lines. The PAP’s communist-leaning faction was expelled from the party in 1958 and subsequently the PAP moved toward the center and then to the right. The Socialist Front, another leftist faction, defected from the PAP in 1961. Although formerly allied with communists, the PAP is now vehemently opposed to communism.
2) Between 1963 and 1965 Singapore was a state in the Federation of Malaysia. During that period PAP operated as a Malaysian party. The prospect that the PAP might form the government of Malaysia troubled the PAP’s relations with United Malays National Organization, which is Malaysia’s dominant party.
3) In 1976 the Dutch Labour Party proposed the expulsion of the PAP from the Socialist International. The four major ideologies of the PAP are pragmatism, meritocracy, multiracialism and Asian communitarianism. Ideological communitarianism is a radical centrist ideology that is characterized by an emphasis on community, socialist economic policies and conservative social policies.
Republic of Turkey (1923)
(formerly part of Ottoman Empire)
Type of state: Multiparty democracy with history of single-party Kemalist and military dictatorships
Prime Minister of Turkey: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (National Salvation Party (banned), Welfare Party (banned), Justice and Development Party, conservative, pro-Islamist): March 14, 2003-present
President of Turkey: Abdullah Gül (National Turkish Students’ Union (Islamist), Welfare Party (banned), Virtue Party (banned), Justice and Development Party): August 28, 2007-present
Socialist International presence: Republican People’s Party, Democratic People’s Party (observer)
Communist parties: Communist Party of Turkey (founded 2001), Communist Party of Turkey (Workers’ Voice), Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey (TDKP), Party of Labour (TDKP front), Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey-Socialist Unity, Communist Workers’ Party of Turkey (formerly Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey-Leninist Wing), Communist Workers’ Movement of Turkey, Revolutionary People’s Movement, Socialist Democracy Party (far left), Workers’ Party (Turkey), Freedom and Solidarity Party (formerly Socialist Unity Party and then United Socialist Party; including members of Communist Labor Party of Turkey, Revolutionary Path, United Communist Party of Turkey, and New Way (communist)), Communist Labor Party of Turkey/Leninist, Socialist Labor Movement, Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front
Communist insurgency: Kurdistan Workers’ Party (banned)
1) Although most of Turkey is located in Asia, specifically the Anatolian Peninsula, or Asia Minor, four provinces are located in Europe, specifically the Balkan Peninsula. Turkey is like the Russian Federation in that it spans two continents.
2) Kemalism, the founding ideology of modern Turkey, is based on republicanism, populism, secularism, revolutionism, nationalism and statism. The Republican People’s Party (CHP), which is both nationalist and social democratic, is the largest opposition party in Turkey and the political heir of Kemalism.
3) The nationalist Marxist Kurdistan Workers’ Party is committed to establishing an independent Kurdish state in southeastern Turkey and is associated with the Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan, based in Iraq and Iran. The party is listed as a terrorist organization throughout the European Union and in the USA.
4) At various times, the PKK has received support from Syria, Greece, Iran, Cyprus, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. Until 1998 Syria harbored the leader of PKK, Abdullah Öcalan. After the Turkish Government openly threatened Syria over its support for the PKK, Öcalan fled to Russia, Italy and then Greece. Öcalan was captured in 1999, in Kenya, by a joint operation of the US Central Intelligence Agency and the Turkish National Intelligence Agency (MIT). Since then he has been held under solitary confinement on Imrali Island, located in the Sea of Marmara. Initially sentenced to death, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 2002, when Turkey abolished the death penalty.
5) The PKK has operated through a succession of pro-Kurdish front parties, including the banned People’s Democratic Party, the Democratic People’s Party beginning in 1997, and the Democratic Society Party beginning in 2005.
6) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey, established the Communist Party of Turkey (Official) in 1920 to counter the influence of the original Communist Party of Turkey (TKP), also formed in that year. There is no continuous organization between the original TKP and the party established in 2001. TKP (2001) traces its origins to the Workers’ Party of Turkey (TIP), which was banned in 1971, through the Party for Socialist Power, which was founded in 1993. The relationship between the TIP and the current Workers’ Party (Turkey), which is a nationalist Maoist organization linked to Aleksandr Dugin’s International Eurasianist Movement and the Communist Party of China, is not known. Dugin drafted the constitution for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
Republic of Yemen (1990)
(union of Yemen Arab Republic (YAR, North Yemen) and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY, South Yemen))
Type of state: “Post”-communist single-party nationalist dictatorship
Prime Minister of Yemen: Ali Mohammed Mujur (General People’s Congress): March 31, 2007-present
President of Yemen: Ali Abdullah Saleh (General People’s Congress): May 22, 1990-present; previously President of Yemen Arab Republic, July 18, 1978-May 22, 1990
1) Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), government of Democratic Republic of Yemen, 1994 (failed secession)
2) Yemeni Socialist Party, government of People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen, 1970-1990
3) National Liberation Front, government of People’s Republic of South Yemen, 1967-1970
Socialist International presence: Yemeni Socialist Party (observer)
1) The People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) was the only openly communist country in the Arab world. Yemeni reunification in 1990 facilitated the infiltration of Yemeni society and institutions by South Yemeni communists.
2) Following reunification, YAR President Ali Abdullah Saleh became president of the new Republic of Yemen, while the communist leader of the PDRY, Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas, became prime minister of the new republic. Before reunification, al-Attas served as the PDRY’s Prime Minister between 1971 and 1986, and Chair of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Council between 1986 and 1990.
3) The short-lived, unrecognized Democratic Republic of Yemen in southern Yemen, with its capital in Aden, seceded from the Republic of Yemen between May 21 and July 7, 1994. YSP members Ali Salim al-Baidh and al-Attas assumed the presidency and premiership, respectively, of the seceding Marxist state. Al-Baidh fled to Oman after the failed secession. The result of the 1994 civil war was to marginalize the “former” South Yemeni communists. YSP members are frequently detained and tortured by authorities and, following the 2003 parliamentary election, the party has been irrelevant in terms of electoral support.
4) President Saleh’s personalist General People’s Congress has dominated Yemeni politics since reunification.
Socialist Republic of Vietnam, including North and South Vietnam (1945)
(formerly Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) before 1976)
Type of state: Paleo-communist single-party dictatorship
Prime Minister of Vietnam: Nguyen Tan Dũng (Communist Party of Vietnam): June 27, 2006-present
President of Vietnam: Nguyen Minh Triet (Communist Party of Vietnam): June 27, 2006-present
1) Communist Party of Vietnam in collaboration with Vietnamese Fatherland Front, 1945-present (conquered South Vietnam in 1976)
Socialist International presence: none
1) The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) traces its origins to a 1930 conference that merged three communist organizations: Indochinese Communist Party (ICP), An Nam Communist Party and Indochinese Communist League. Ho Chi Minh, a trained communist revolutionary, spent many years in Moscow, participated in the Communist International, and assisted in the founding of the French Communist Party in the 1920s and the ICP in Hong Kong, in 1930. In 1941 Ho returned to French Indochina where he established the Viet Minh, or Vietnamese Allied, a broad front for national liberation. In order to disguise its communist orientation, the CPV was officially dissolved in 1945 and its operations were conducted through the Marxism Research Association and Viet Minh.
2) In 1951 the CPV was openly reestablished as the Workers’ Party of Vietnam and in 1960 the party institutionalized the task of building socialism in the DRV and exporting communist revolution to the South. After the Vietnam War and the reunification of the two Vietnams, the party’s name was changed to the Communist Party of Vietnam.
3) During the Second World War, Japan occupied Vietnam, but after the war France endeavored to reassert control over its Southeast Asian colonies. In 1945 the Viet Minh organized the August Revolution, a series of coordinated rebellions across the country. As a result, Emperor Bao Dai willingly abdicated and transferred his authority to the Viet Minh under the leadership of Ho. In northern Vietnam the DRV was proclaimed. Southern Vietnam was liberated from Japanese control by British forces.
4) During the First Indochina War, also called the French Indochina War, the Viet Minh under Ho’s leadership continued to resist the French presence in Southeast Asia. The French were finally defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and the failure to unify northern and southern Vietnam in 1956 led three years later to the formation of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, popularly known as the Viet Cong, which instigated an insurgency against the Republic of Vietnam.
5) The combatants of the Second Indochina War, also called the Vietnam War, featured, in the one camp, the DRV, allied with the Soviet Union and People’s Republic of China, and, in the other camp, the Republic of Vietnam, allied with the USA, Australia and the Republic of Korea.
6) US military intervention began in May 1961 when President John F. Kennedy authorized the deployment of 400 Green Beret “Special Advisors” to South Vietnam to train that country’s armed forces in counterinsurgency tactics.
State of Brunei, Abode of Peace (1984)
Type of state: Absolute Islamic monarchy with only one legal party
Sultan and Prime Minister of Brunei: Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah: October 5, 1967-present
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: Brunei People’s Party (possibly; banned 1962)
Communist insurgency: none
1) The sultan has an enormous private fortune and was at one time the richest man in the world.
2) The politically irrelevant Brunei Solidarity National Party is the only legally recognized party in Brunei.
State of Israel (1948)
Type of state: Multiparty democracy
Prime Minister of Israel: Ehud Olmert (Gahal, Likud, Kadima): January 4, 2006-present
President of Israel: Shimon Peres (Haganah, Mapai, Alignment, Labor, Kadima; leftist Zionist): July 15, 2007-present
Socialist International presence: Israeli Labor Party, Meretz-Yachad (containing former members of Communist Party of Israel)
Communist parties: Communist Party of Israel (CPI, formerly New Communist List, which defected from original CPI), Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (“Hadash,” front for CPI)
1) Kadima (“Forward”) is a new centrist party formed in 2005 by defectors from the rightist Likud (“Consolidation”) Party.
2) Historically, communists and other leftists worldwide, including Jewish communists, have been resolutely opposed to Zionism since it is a form of nationalism. The Israeli Labor Party and Meretz-Yachad, however, are committed to both Zionism and “social democracy,” an ideological position that properly categorizes these parties, like many other non-communist socialist parties, as national socialist.
3) The CPI (“Maki”) was founded in 1948 from remnants of the Palestinian Communist Party (PCP), founded by Jews and Arabs in 1919. The PCP is not to be confused with the Palestinian People’s Party’s predecessor of the same name, founded in 1948 by the Jordanian Communist Party and currently holding membership in the Palestine Liberation Organization.
4) After the Prague Trials of 1953 purged Jewish members from the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the Marxist-Zionist United Workers’ Party (“Mapam”) abandoned its pro-Soviet position, prompting a number of Mapam members to defect to Maki. The show trials wrongly implicated Mapam’s envoy in Prague, Mordechai Oren, as party to a Zionist conspiracy.
5) In 1965 the CPI divided into two factions. The first faction was a largely Jewish group under the leadership of Moshe Sneh, a former member of Mapam, which recognized Israel’s right to self-determination and objected to the Soviet Union’s anti-Israel policy. The second faction was a largely Israeli Arab group that opposed Israel’s right to self-determination. Sneh’s faction retained the name Maki while the anti-Zionist faction formed the New Communist List (“Rakah”), which was recognized by the Soviet Union as the “official” CPI. Beginning in 1973 the original Maki merged with successive leftist parties, such as Moked, Shelli Camp, Ratz, Meretz and eventually Meretz-Yachad. In 1989 Rakah officially assumed the name Maki and is the dominant party in the leftist anti-Zionist front organization Hadash, which means Democratic Front for Peace and Equality.
6) Until the late 1980s the leader of the largely Arab CPI was Meir Vilner, the pseudonym of Ber Kovner (1918-2003), a Polish Jew who was the youngest and longest living signatory to the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, promulgated in 1948. Kovner began his political career in the Marxist-Zionist Young Guard (Hashomer Hatza’ir) and then, disenchanted with Zionism, gravitated to the underground Polish Communist Party. In 1938 he emigrated from Poland to the Palestinian British Mandate where he joined the PCP.
State of Kuwait (1961)
Type of state: Constitutional Islamic monarchy with no legal parties
Prime Minister of Kuwait: Nasser Al-Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah: February 7, 2006-present
Emir of Kuwait (Head of State): Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: January 29, 2006-present
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: none
Communist insurgency: none
1) Following the 2003 parliamentary election, Kuwaitis elected 21 Islamists, 13 government supporters, three liberals and 12 other nonpartisan members.
2) Between 1990 and 1991 Iraq, in an operation covertly supported by the Soviet Union, invaded, occupied and annexed Kuwait after the President of Iraq Saddam Hussein claimed the emirate as a long-lost Iraqi province.
State of Qatar (1971)
Type of state: Absolute Islamic monarchy with no legal parties
Prime Minister of Qatar: Hamad ibn Jaber Al Thani: April 3, 2007-present
Emir of Qatar (Head of State): Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani: June 27, 1995-present
Socialist International presence: political parties banned
Communist parties: political parties banned
Communist insurgency: none
1) In 2004 two agents of the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB), formerly known as the Committee for State Security (KGB), were convicted in a Qatari court of assassinating the former president of the unrecognized Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Zelimkhan Abdumuslimovich Yanderbiyev, who was then living in exile in Qatar.
Sultanate of Oman (1971)
Type of state: Absolute Islamic monarchy with no legal parties
Sultan and Head of Government: Qaboos bin Said bin Taimur Al ‘Bu Saidi: July 23, 1970-present
Socialist International presence: political parties banned
Communist parties: Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (dormant)
Communist insurgency: defunct
1) The Dhofar Rebellion was a communist insurrection in the province of Dhofar that endeavored to overthrow the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. Hostilities raged between 1962 and 1975. In 1962, a disaffected tribal leader, Mussalim bin Nafl, created the Dhofar Liberation Front (DLF), obtained arms and vehicles from Saudi Arabia, and recruited former soldiers of the Sultan of Oman’s Armed Forces and the Trucial Oman Scouts in the United Arab Emirates. From the very beginning of the rebellion, Nasserites and other leftists in Yemen and Aden gravitated to the DLF.
2) Following the creation of a communist state in South Yemen in 1967, the Dhofar rebels established bases in the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY). Hard-core revolutionaries such as Mohammad Ahmad al-Ghassani renamed the DLF as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. Insurgents in northern Oman created a related organization called the National Democratic Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. In 1974 the rebel movement consolidated and renamed itself as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman. Government forces finally suppressed the rebellion in 1975 and the remaining fighters surrendered or fled to the PDRY.
Syrian Arab Republic (1949)
(known as United Arab Republic until 1961; unified under that name with Egypt between 1958 and 1961)
Type of state: Socialist dictatorship supported by communist-dominated political front
Prime Minister of Syria: Muhammad Naji al-Otari (Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party): September 10, 2003-present
President of Syria: Bashar al-Assad (Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party): July 17, 2000-present
1) National Progressive Front (consisting of Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party (Arab neofascist) in constitutional leading role, Syrian Social Nationalist Party (Arab neofascist), Arab Socialist Union Party, Arab Socialist Party, Syrian Communist Party (Yusuf Faisal), Syrian Communist Party (Khalid Bakdash), Union Socialist Party, and Union Socialist Democratic Party), 2005-present
2) National Progressive Front (as above, with exclusion of Syrian Social Nationalist Party), 1972-2005
3) Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, sole legal party, 1963-1972
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: Syrian Communist Party (Yusuf Faisal), Syrian Communist Party (Khalid Bakdash)
Communist insurgency: Syrian Democratic People’s Party (banned)
1) In 1986 the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party sent a delegate to the Ninth Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, the ruling communist party of East Germany. The Syrian Communist Party (SCP) also sent a delegation.
2) Founded in 1932 as a pan-Syrian fascist party, the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) boasts a swastika-like flag, operates in both Syria and Lebanon, is the largest Syrian party after the Ba’athists, and was legalized and admitted to the Syrian government in 2005. The SSNP moved leftward in the 1970s when its leadership embraced Marxism. In the Lebanese Civil War SSNP militias fought along side the Lebanese Communists and Ba’athists against the Phalangists and their allies. The Lebanese rightists represented a more traditional neofascist ideology based on José Antonio Primo de Rivera’s Spanish Phalanx. SSNP supporters disavow any connection to fascism.
3) In 1949 Husni al-Za’im seized power in a bloodless coup d’etat with the discrete assistant of the SSNP, although al-Za’im is not known to have been a member of that party. The military officers who supported his ascent to power, Adib al-Shishakli and Sami al-Hinnawi, were known SSNP members. The same officers were responsible for ousting al-Za’im only months later. Al-Shishakli was briefly President of Syria between 1953 and 1954. President Shishakli’s regime was overthrown in a coup plotted by the SCP, disaffected Druze officers and Ba’thists.
4) The clandestine Syrian Democratic People’s Party was founded in 1973 when a faction defected from the SCP over the communist leadership’s decision to join the Ba’thist-led NPF. Until 2005 the SDPP was known as the SCP (Political Bureau) or SCP (Riyad al-Turk).
Union of Myanmar (1948)
(formerly Union of Burma before 1989)
Type of state: Socialist military dictatorship
Prime Minister of Myanmar: General Thein Sein (State Peace and Development Council): April -October 24, 2007 (acting), October 24, 2007-present
Chairman of State Peace and Development Council: Senior General Than Shwe: April 23, 1992-present
1) State Peace and Development Council (military junta) with support of National Unity Party (formerly Burma Socialist Program Party) and state-organized Union Solidarity and Development Association, 1997-present
2) State Law and Order Restoration Council (military junta) with support of National Unity Party and state-organized Union Solidarity and Development Association, 1993-1997
3) State Law and Order Restoration Council (military junta) with support of National Unity Party: 1988-1993
4) Military junta with support of Burma Socialist Program Party, 1962-1988
5) Union Party under Prime Minister U Nu, 1960-1962
6) Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League under Prime Ministers U Nu and Ba Swe, 1948-1960
Socialist International presence: none
Communist parties: National League for Democracy (possible front for Communist Party of Burma)
Communist insurgency: Communist Party of Burma
1) Between the founding in 1944 of the AFPFL to oppose the Japanese occupation and 1949, a number of leftist groups, including the Burma Red Flag Communists, Burmese Socialists, White Band PVO, Revolutionary Burma Army and Burma White Flag Communists, defected from this organization.
2) Nationalist leader General Aung San negotiated Burma’s independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. Between 1946 and his assassination in the following year, only months before official Burmese independence, the general was President of the AFPFL, which was also known as the Socialist Party. General Aung San was also the first General Secretary of the CPB. During the BSPP era, the CPB was the largest of the banned political parties.
3) In 1990 military-sanctioned parliamentary elections yielded a resounding victory for the National League for Democracy (NLD), which won 485 or 80.8 per cent of the available seats. The NLD is a member of Burma’s government in exile, the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), which is based in Rockville, Maryland, USA. Internationally renowned Burmese dissident Aung San Suu Kyi is the NLD’s General Secretary.
3) There is evidence to indicate that the NLD is a front for the CPB, although the NLD leadership has protested that such assertions are merely propaganda emanating from the military junta. First, Suu Kyi is the daughter of General Aung San who, as noted above, was the first General Secretary of the CPB. Second, Suu Kyi has admitted that some of her advisers are “former” members of the CPB. Third, the name and flag of the NLD are evocative of a communist front organization.
United Arab Emirates (1971)
Type of state: Federation of seven emirates
Prime Minister of UAE: Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum: February 11, 2006-present
President of UAE: Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan: November 3, 2004-present
Socialist International presence: political parties banned
Communist parties: political parties banned
1) The seven emirates include Abu Dhabi, Ajmān, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain.
2) The Presidency of the UAE is de facto hereditary to the Al-Nahyan clan of Abu Dhabi, while the Premiership is hereditary to the Al-Maktoom clan of Dubai.
3) In December 2005 Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan, President of the UAE, announced that one half of the members of the Federal National Council would be elected, while the other half would remain appointed.