Red World

WHERE ARE THE “DEAD” COMMUNISTS TODAY?


Acronyms

CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union

EUL/NGL: European United Left/Nordic Green Left

PEL: Party of European Left

PES: Party of European Socialists

SI: Socialist International

UCP-CPSU: Union of Communist Parties-Communist Party of the Soviet Union

EASTERN EUROPE

Czech Republic
Part of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic until 1989

  • Prime Minister Jiri Rusnok (2013-present): candidate for membership in Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Czech Social Democratic Party, independent; began career in Communist Czechoslovakia’s State Planning Commission, Federal Ministry for Strategic Planning
  • President Milos Zeman (2013-present): Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Czech Social Democratic Party (leader), Party of Civic Rights-Zemanovci

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Czech Social Democratic Party: founded 1878 as Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Party in Austria; forcibly merged into communist-led National Front between 1948 and 1989; independent elements of Czechoslovak Social Democracy (CSD) forced into exile in London; formally restored as CSD after Velvet Revolution; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia: founded 1989 from Czech section of ruling Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; affiliates with PEL and EUL-NGL
  • Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC): founded 1995, advocates reunion of Czech and Slovak republics as single socialist state; leader Miroslav Stepan boss of Prague KSC before 1989; Czech government passed act in 1993 declaring original KSC to be a criminal organization

Slovak Republic
Part of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic until 1989

  • Prime Minister Roberto Fico (2012-present): Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Party of Democratic Left, Direction-Social Democracy
  • President Ivan Gašparovič (2004-present): Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, People’s Party-Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Movement for Democracy

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Direction-Social Democracy: founded 1999 as split from Party of Democratic Left (SDL), which emerged from restored Communist Party of Slovakia in 1990; Direction (“Smer”) re-merged with SDL in 2005, as well as with Social Democratic Alternative and Social Democratic Party of Slovakia, which Alexander Dubček, past leader of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, founded in 1990; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Czechoslovakia: founded 1995, advocates reunion of Czech and Slovak republics as single socialist state, leader Miroslav Stepan former boss of old KSC in Prague
  • Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS): founded 1939, united with Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in 1948, restored as independent party in 1990; hardline Marxist-Leninists opposed transformation of KSS into Party of Democratic Left and, therefore, organized Communist Party of Slovakia-1991; KSS-91 merged with Communist League of Slovakia in 1992 to form current version of KSS; affiliates with PEL

Poland
People’s Republic of Poland until 1989

  • Prime Minister Donald Tusk (2007-present): Liberal Democratic Congress, Freedom Union, Civic Platform
  • President Bronisław Komorowski (2010-present): Democratic Union, Freedom Union, Conservative People’s Party, Solidarity Electoral Action, Civic Platform, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Democratic Left Alliance: founded 1991 as electoral coalition, organized as party 1999; traces origins to ruling Marxist-Leninist Polish United Workers’ Party; affiliates with SI and PES
  • Labor United: minor party founded 1992, traces origins to ruling Marxist-Leninist Polish United Workers’ Party; affiliates with SI and PES internationally, Democratic Left Alliance domestically

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Poland: founded 2002

Hungary
People’s Republic of Hungary until 1989

  • Prime Minister Viktor Orban (2010-present): Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Union
  • President Janos Ader (2012-present): Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Union

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Hungarian Socialist Party: founded 1989 as renamed version of ruling Marxist-Leninist Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Hungarian Communist Workers’ Party: founded 1989 by hardline Marxist-Leninists from defunct Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party
  • Workers’ Party of Hungary 2006: founded 2005 as split from Hungarian Communist Workers’ Party; affiliates with PEL

Romania
Socialist Republic of Romania until 1989

  • Prime Minister Victor Ponta (2012-present): Social Liberal Union, Social Democratic Party
  • President Traian Băsescu (2004-present): Romanian Communist Party, National Salvation Front, Democratic Party, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Democratic Liberal Party: founded 2007; traces its origin through Democratic Party (SI, 1996-2005) to National Salvation Front, consisting of reformist second-tier cadres of ruling Romanian Communist Party; center-right in ideology
  • Social Democratic Party: founded 2001; traces its origin to Democratic National Salvation Front, itself a split from National Salvation Front; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party (Nepeceriști): founded 2006 by persons unassociated with formerly ruling Romanian Communist Party
  • Romanian Communist Party: reorganized 2010; rejects claims of Socialist Alliance Party
  • Socialist Alliance Party: founded 2003; affiliates with PEL

Bulgaria
People’s Republic of Bulgaria until 1990

  • Prime Minister Plamen Vasilev Oresharski (2013-present): Bulgarian Socialist Party; graduated in 1985 from Sofia’s Karl Marx Higher Institute of Economics (renamed in 1990 as University of National and World Economy)
  • President Rosen Plevneliev (2012-present): Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Bulgarian Socialist Party: founded 1990 as renamed version of ruling Bulgarian Communist Party; affiliates with SI and PES; leads Coalition for Bulgaria

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Bulgaria: founded 1996; affiliates with Coalition for Bulgaria

Albania
People’s Socialist Republic of Albania until 1991

  • Prime Minister Edi Rama (2013-present): Socialist Party of Albania
  • President Bujar Nishani (2012-present): Democratic Party of Albania; graduated in 1988 from Tirana’s Skanderbeg Military Academy, which trained officers of Communist Albania’s People’s Army

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Socialist Party of Albania: founded 1991 as renamed version of ruling Marxist-Leninist Albanian Labor Party; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Albania: founded 2006 as merger of Communist Party of Albania (founded 1991), Albanian Labor Party (reorganized 2002) and other smaller communist parties
  • Communist Party of Albania 8 November

FORMER COMMUNIST YUGOSLAVIA

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Vjekoslav Bevanda (2012-present): Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Collective presidency (2010-present): Nebojša Radmanović (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats), Željko Komšić (Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, independent), Bakir Izetbegović (Party of Democratic Action)

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina: founded 1990 as renamed version of League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Workers’ Communist Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina: founded 2000

Croatia
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Zoran Milanović (2011-present): Social Democratic Party of Croatia
  • President Ivo Josipović (2010-present: League of Communists of Croatia, Social Democratic Party of Croatia, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democratic Party of Croatia: founded 1990 as renamed version of League of Communists of Croatia; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Socialist Labor Party of Croatia: founded 1997

Macedonia
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski (2006-present): Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity
  • President Gjorge Ivanov (2009-present): League of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia (communist era), Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democratic Union of Macedonia: founded 1991 as renamed version of League of Communists of Macedonia; affiliates with SI and PES
  • Socialist Party of Macedonia: founded 1990 as renamed version of Socialist Alliance of Working People of Macedonia, mass organization associated with League of Communists of Macedonia

Overt communist parties:

  • Union of Tito’s Left Forces: founded 2005

Montenegro
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Milo Đukanović (2012-present): League of Communists of Montenegro, Democratic Party of Socialists
  • President Filip Vujanović (2003-present): Democratic Party of Socialists

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro: founded 1991 as renamed version of League of Communists of Montenegro; affiliates with SI and PES
  • Socialist People’s Party of Montenegro: founded 1997 as split from Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
  • Social Democratic Party of Montenegro: founded 1993; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Socialist Party of Yugoslavia: founded 2002
  • Yugoslav Communist Party of Montenegro: founded 2009 as merger between League of Communists of Yugoslavia-Communists of Montenegro and Yugoslav Communists of Montenegro

Serbia
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Ivica Dačić (2012-present): University of Belgrade Association of Communists, Young Socialists of Belgrade, Socialist Party of Serbia
  • President Tomislav Nikolic (2012-present): People’s Radical Party, Serbian Radical Party, Serbian Progressive Party

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Socialist Party of Serbia: founded 1990 as renamed version of League of Communists of Serbia

Overt communist parties:

  • New Communist Party of Yugoslavia: founded 1990
  • Yugoslav Left: operated in Serbia between 1994 and 2003; led by Mirjana Markovic, widow of Slobodan Milosevic (died 2006); wanted by Serbian authorities on murder charges, Interpol on fraud charges; living in exile in Russia

Slovenia
Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992

  • Prime Minister Alenka Bratušek (2013-present): Zares-Social Liberals, Positive Slovenia (center left)
  • President Borut Pahor (2012-present): League of Communists of Slovenia, Social Democrats, independent

 Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democrats: founded 1990 as Party of Democratic Renewal, renamed version of League of Communists of Slovenia; joined United List of Social Democrats in 1992; electoral alliance unified as one party in 1993; assumed current name in 2005; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

not known

FORMER SOVIET UNION

Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan (2008-present, no relation to Serzh): Republican Party
  • President Serzh Sargsyan (2008-present, no relation to Tigran): CPSU, Republican Party

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Democratic Party of Armenia (HDK): founded 1991 by Aram Gaspar Sargsyan, boss of formerly ruling Communist Party of Armenia (Soviet Union); HDK has never governed “post”-Soviet Armenia; Sargsyan was member of “post”-communist parliament from 2003 to 2007
  • Republican Party of Armenia: potemkin party of power founded 1990 by “ex”-CPSU Serzh Sargsyan; national conservative in ideology, affiliates with European People’s Party; claims 140,000 members

Overt communist parties:

  • Armenian Communist Party: founded 1991 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Armenia (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; affiliates with UCP–CPSU; claims 18,000 members
  • Progressive United Communist Party of Armenia: one of three legal communist parties in Armenia
  • United Communist Party of Armenia: founded 2003 through merger of Renewed Communist Party of Armenia, Armenian Labor Communist Party, Armenian Workers’ Union, Union of Communists of Armenia, Marxist Party of Armenia and Party of Intellectuals; supports President Serzh Sargsyan

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Artur Rasizade (2003-present): CPSU, New Azerbaijan Party
  • President Ilham Aliyev (2003-present): Soviet Komsomol, New Azerbaijan Party

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • New Azerbaijan Party (YAP): potemkin party of power founded 1992 by “ex”-CPSU and “ex”-Azerbaijan KGB boss Heydar Aliyev; son Ilham assumed leadership over party when Heydar died in 2003; center-right in ideology; claims 518,000 members

Overt communist parties:

  • Azerbaijan Communist Party (AKP): founded 1993 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Azerbaijan (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; supports Aliyev dynastic regime; affiliates with UCP-CPSU; claims 60,000 members
  • Azerbaijan Communist Party (on Platform of Marxism-Leninism): founded 2000 as splinter group from United Communist Party of Azerbaijan (AVKP-1); affiliated with CPSU (Shenin)
  • (Reformist) Communist Party of Azerbaijan (CPA-2): founded 1996 as splinter group from Azerbaijan Communist Party; supports Aliyev dynastic regime; reportedly considered merger with New Azerbaijan Party in 2000
  • United Communist Party of Azerbaijan: founded 1993; two factions formed in 1997, AVKP-1 and AVKP-2, each claiming to be valid party; opposes Aliyev dynastic regime

Belarus
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich (2010-present): CPSU, independent
  • President Alexander Lukashenko (1994-present): CPSU, Communists for Democracy, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Belaya Rus: founded 2007 as non-electoral “public association” along lines of Vladimir Putin’s United Russia; supports “ex”-CPSU President Alexander Lukashenko; claims 130,000 members

Overt communist parties:

  • Belarusian United Left Party “A Just World”: founded in late 1991 as Party of Belarusian Communists, successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Byelorussia (Soviet Union), which was banned after August coup in Moscow; changed named to current one in 2009; opposes President Alexander Lukashenko; affiliates with PEL
  • Communist Party of Belarus: founded 1996; supports President Alexander Lukashenko; obtained 3 seats in House of Representatives in 2012 parliamentary election, appointed to 17 seats in Council of the Republic; affiliates with UCP-CPSU

Estonia
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Andrus Ansip (2005-present): CPSU, Reform Party
  • President Toomas Hendrik Ilves (2006-present): Social Democratic Party, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Estonian Centre Party: founded 1991 by “ex”-CPSU Edgar Savisaar, who also co-founded Popular Front of Estonia in 1988 in support of Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika; affiliates with Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
  • Estonian United Left Party (EUV): founded 1990 as Estonian Democratic Labor Party (EDLP) by pro-independence majority of Communist Party of Estonia (Soviet Union); renamed as Estonian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1997; renamed a second time as Estonian Left Party in 2004; merged with Russophone Constitution Party in 2008 to form party with present name; EUV affiliates with PEL
  • Reform Party: founded 1994 by “ex”-CPSU Siim Kallas through merger of party with same name and Estonian Liberal Democratic Party; center-right in ideology; affiliates with Liberal International and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
  • Social Democratic Party (SDE): traces origin to Estonian Social Democratic Party (ESDP), founded 1990 as merger of several social democratic parties; Russian Party in Estonia merged with SDE in 2012; first leader of ESDP was “ex”-CPSU Marju Lauristin, daughter of Johannes, who signed away Estonia’s freedom to Soviet Union in 1940; Marju also co-founded Popular Front of Estonia in 1988 in support of Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika; SDE affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Estonia (CPSU): founded 1990 as Communist Party of Estonia (on CPSU Platform), after pro-independence majority of Communist Party of Estonia (Soviet Union) voted to change name to Estonian Democratic Labor Party; banned by Estonian government after August 1991 coup in Moscow; official ban remains in effect as of 2013; affiliated with UCP-CPSU until 2001, then CPSU (Shenin); small membership, no (known) leader

Georgia
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Bidzina Ivanishvili (2012-present): Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia (coalition includes former representatives of the Shevardnadze regime disempowered during Rose Revolution of 2003)
  • President Mikheil Saakashvili (2004-present): United Citizens of Georgia, United National Movement

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • United Citizens of Georgia: potemkin party of power that supported “ex”-CPSU President Eduard Shevardnadze between 1992 and 2003; affiliated with SI; also called Union of Citizens of Georgia

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Georgia: founded 1992 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Georgia (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; supported President Eduard Shevardnadze between 1992 and 2003; claims 15,000 members
  • New Communist Party of Georgia: founded 2001; affiliated with CPSU (Shenin)
  • United Communist Party of Georgia: founded 1994 as merger of Stalin Society, Georgian Workers’ Communist Party and Union of Communists of Georgia; affiliates with UCP-CPSU

Kazakhstan
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Serik Akhmetov (2012-present): National Democratic Party “Nur Otan”
  • President Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990-present): CPSU, independent, National Democratic Party “Nur Otan”

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • National Democratic Party “Nur Otan”: potemkin party of power founded 1999 to support “ex”-CPSU President Nursultan Nazarbayev; merger of People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity, Liberal Movement of Kazakhstan and “For Kazakhstan-2030” Movement; Civic Party and Agrarian Party merged with Otan, as party then called, in 2006; claims 762,000 members

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Kazakhstan: founded October 1991 as reorganized successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; officially registered 1998; affiliates with UCP-CPSU; claims 70,000 members
  • Communist People’s Party of Kazakhstan (CPPK): founded 2004 as split from Communist Party of Kazakhstan; a re-merger with CPK was considered then abandoned in 2007; obtained 7 seats in Majilis (Assembly) in 2012 parliamentary election; supports Nazarbayev regime; claims 90,000 members
  • Socialist Resistance of Kazakhstan: founded 2002; opposes Nazarbayev regime; Trotskyist in ideology, affiliates with Committee for a Workers’ International

Kyrgyzstan
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Zhantoro Satybaldiyev (2012-present): independent
  • President Almazbek Atambayev (2011-present): CPSU, Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan: potemkin party of power founded 1993; played visible role in 2006 Tulip Revolution; infiltrated by “ex”-CPSU cadres like President Almazbek Atambayev

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan: founded 1999 as splinter group from Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan; affiliated with CPSU (Shenin)
  • Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan: founded 1992 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow

Latvia
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Valdis Dombrovskis (2009-present): Unity Party, New Era Party
  • President Andris Bērziņš (2011-present): CPSU, Popular Front of Latvia, Union of Greens and Farmers

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • For Human Rights in Latvia (PCTVL):  leftist electoral alliance founded 1998 by three Russophone parties: People’s Harmony Party, Equal Rights and Socialist Party of Latvia (LSP); LSP left alliance in 2004; during this period, PCTVL’s most prominent leaders were Jānis Jurkāns, Alfrēds Rubiks and Tatjana Ždanoka, the last two being “ex”-CPSU; affiliates with European Free Alliance
  • Harmony Centre: leftist electoral alliance founded 2005 by two Russophone parties: Social Democratic Party “Harmony” and Socialist Party of Latvia; won 31 of 100 seats in Latvia’s Saeima in 2011 parliamentary election, the largest amount of any party or alliance, but not enough to form government
  • Social Democratic Party “Harmony” (SDPS): founded 2010 through merger of National Harmony Party (TSP), New Centre and Social Democratic Party; TSP, in turn, traces its origin to communist-controlled, pro-autonomy Popular Front of Latvia; SDPS affiliates with PES

Overt communist parties:

  • League of Communists of Latvia: founded 1993 from remnants of Communist Party of Latvia (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; ban remains in effect as of 2013; affiliates with UCP-CPSU
  • Socialist Party of Latvia: founded 1994 as successor to Communist Party of Latvia (Soviet Union); Russophone party affiliates with EUL-NGL

Lithuania
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevičius (2012-present): Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
  • President Dalia Grybauskaitė (2009-present): CPSU, Communist Party of Lithuania, independent

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Social Democratic Party of Lithuania: founded 1896, LSDP returned from exile in 1989, only to merge with the Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania, the renamed Communist Party of Lithuania, in 2001; affiliates with SI and PES

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Lithuania: banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; ban remains in effect as of 2013
  • Socialist People’s Front (SPF): founded 2009 as merger of Front Party, founded 2008, and Lithuanian Socialist Party (LSP), founded 1994; LSP leader between 1997 and 2006, Mindaugas Stakvilevičius, was former member of “ex”-communist Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania; in March 2013, “ex”CPSU President Grybauskaitė removed Algirdas Paleckis, SPF leader, from a list of state award recipients; 42-year-old Paleckis, formerly Front Party leader, was convicted for denying Soviet aggression on January 13, 1991, an act that has been criminalized in Lithuania

Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Iurie Leancă (2013-present): probable ex-CPSU, Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (before 2009), Liberal Democratic Party; Soviet Foreign Ministry, including first secretary in political department of Moldavian branch of foreign ministry,1986-1991; second secretary at Soviet embassy in Bucharest, 1989
  • President Nicolae Timofti (2012-present): probable ex-CPSU, currently non-partisan; appointed in 1980 to Supreme Court of Moldavian SSR

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Christian Democratic People’s Party (CDPP): founded 1989 by communist-controlled Democratic Movement of Moldova (1988-1989), which became Popular Front of Moldova (FPM) (1989-1992), and then Christian Democratic Popular Front (1992-1999); Popular Front of Moldova supported Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika; CDPP affiliates with Centrist Democrat International and European People’s Party

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Moldova: founded 2012 by hardline Marxist-Leninists; asserts formerly ruling Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova has become social democratic in character and serves “liberal bourgeoise”
  • Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova: founded 1993 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Moldavia (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; since 1998 parliamentary election PCRM has held largest number of seats in national legislature; between 2001 and 2009, PCRM comprised the Former Soviet Union’s only openly communist government; affiliates with UCP-CPSU and PEL
  • Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova: founded 1997 as Russophone splinter group from Socialist Party of Moldova; Igor Dodon, party leader since 2011, is former cadre of Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova
  • Socialist Party of Moldova

Russian Federation
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev (2012-present), President (2008-2012): CPSU, independent, United Russia
  • President Vladimir Putin (2000-2008, 2012-present), Prime Minister (1999-2000, 2008-2012): CPSU, Our Home Russia, Unity, independent, United Russia

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • A Just Russia: founded 2006 as merger of Rodina, Russian Party of Life and Russian Pensioners’ Party; according to University of Kent professor Richard Sakwa, creation of A Just Russia was supported by siloviki faction in Kremlin administration, the aim of which was to create a left-oriented alternative to United Russia; affiliates with SI
  • Liberal Democratic Party of Russia: founded 1990 as Soviet Union’s first officially sanctioned opposition party; long-time leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky a bombastic media performer known for over-the-top statements; according to former CPSU Politburo member Alexander Yakovlev, LDPR was joint project of CPSU leadership and KGB chief Vladimir Kryuchkov, who presented puppet LDPR at a meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev; name of party invented by KGB General Philipp Bobkov; neo-fascist, third-positionist in ideology, opposes both communism and capitalism; claimed 600,000 members in 2003
  • United Russia: potemkin party of power founded 2001 through merger of Unity and Fatherland-All Russia; originally called Union of Unity and Fatherland, later All-Russian Party of Unity and Fatherland; led by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev; “ex”-communist/KGB President Vladimir Putin’s support group in the State Duma; centrist and statist in ideology; claims more than 2 million members

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of the Russian Federation: founded 1990 as Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, popularly known as Russian Communist Party; CP RSFSR was first republican-level branch of CPSU; banned after August 1991 coup, along with all other republican-level communist parties; reorganized 1993 with Gennady Zyuganov as First Secretary of Central Committee; CPRF obtained largest number of seats in State Duma in 1995 and 1999 parliamentary elections; won 92 seats in 2011 parliamentary election, second largest after United Russia; affiliates with UCP-CPSU; claimed 157,000 members in 2012
  • Note: Many other, smaller communist parties of various ideological “hues” operate in “post”-Soviet Russian Federation.

Tajikistan
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Oqil Oqilov (1999-present): CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan
  • President/Head of State Emomalii Rahmon (1992-present): CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan: potemkin party of power founded 1994 by majority faction of formerly ruling Communist Party of Tajikistan (Soviet Union); originally called People’s Party of Tajikistan, adopted current name 1998

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Tajikistan (HKT): founded December 1991 as reorganized successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Tajikistan (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; between August and December 1991, HKT changed name to Socialist Party of Tajikistan to avoid confiscation of assets imposed by Soviet Union-wide ban against CPSU; during Tajikistan’s civil war (1992-1997), the country’s Supreme Court banned all parties except HKT in 1993; HKT offers nominal opposition to Rahmon regime; in 2010 parliamentary election, HKT obtained 2 seats in Assembly of Representatives; affiliates with UCP-CPSU

Turkmenistan
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister: post abolished 1992
  • President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow (2006-present): Democratic Party of Turkmenistan; health minister under “ex”-CPSU dictator Saparmurat Niyazov

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Democratic Party of Turkmenistan: potemkin party of power founded 1991 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Turkmenistan (Soviet Union); only legal party

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Turkmenistan: Saparmurat Niyazov led ruling Communist Party of Turkmenistan (Soviet Union) between 1985 and 1991, when hardline Marxist-Leninist faction banned; ban remains in effect as of 2013

Ukraine
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Mykola Azarov (2010-present): Civil Congress of Ukraine, Party of Labor, Party of Regions
  • President Viktor Yanukovich (2010-present): CPSU, Party of Regions, independent

 Parties with communist pedigree:

  • Party of Regions (POR): potemkin party of power founded 1997 as Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine; support base predominantly southern Ukraine, historically known as “New Russia”; party leader Viktor Yanukovich won over a large part of Communist Party’s electorate in eastern Ukraine in 2004; Ukrainian Republican Party and Labor Ukraine merged into party in 2007; Strong Ukraine merged into party in 2012; POR signed a memorandum of cooperation with Communist Party of China and formed a cooperative arrangement with Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group, both in 2010; supports Russian as Ukraine’s second official language

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Ukraine (KPU): Russophone party founded 1993 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow; KPU deputies remained in Verkhovna Rada until 1994 election as a faction within Socialist Party of Ukraine; between 1994 and 1998 KPU joined various governing coalitions; in 2012 parliamentary election KPU obtained 32 seats in Verkhovna Rada but acquired no cabinet positions; closely allied with Bloc of Left and Center-Left Forces, Bloc of Volodymyr Lytvyn, Socialist Party of Ukraine and Party of Regions; affiliates with UCP-CPSU; claims 111,000 members
  • Note: Many other, smaller communist parties of various ideological “hues” operate in “post”-Soviet Ukraine.

Uzbekistan
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic until 1991

  • Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyoyev (2003-present): Self-Sacrifice National Democratic Party, National Revival Democratic Party
  • President Islam Karimov (1990-present): CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan

Parties with communist pedigree:

  • People’s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan: potemkin party of power founded November 1991 as successor to formerly ruling Communist Party of Uzbekistan (Soviet Union), which was banned after August 1991 coup in Moscow

Overt communist parties:

  • Communist Party of Uzbekistan: reorganized 1994 by hardline Marxist-Leninists
  • Tashkent Communist Union: founded 2001

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