>Red World: Republic of Tajikistan: Soviet Communist Facelift in Central Asia; Communist Party Never Banned

>Pictured here: “Post”-communist Tajikistan’s long-serving president, Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU)

Republic of Tajikistan
Constituent republic of USSR: October 14, 1924-September 9, 1991
Previous names: 1) Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic: December 5, 1929-September 9, 1991; 2) Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic: October 14, 1924-December 5, 1929
Type of state: “Post”-communist “multi-party” presidential-dominant state under covert control of restored/continuing CPSU
Neo-communist renewal: “Collapse of communism,” 1991

Neo-communist re-renewal: The neo-communist government of President Rakhmon Nabiyev (“ex”-CPSU) was ousted by the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) on September 7, 1992, leading to the Tajik Civil War, which finally ended in 1997. The UTO was a loosely organized opposition composed of disenfranchised groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions, liberal reformists, and Islamists, including the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, which was linked to the wider Islamic Movement of Central Asia (IMCA). The Uzbek branch of the IMCA is called the Islamic Movement of Turkestan/Uzbekistan. Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada’s list of terrorist organizations links the IMT/IMU to al-Qaeda.

In Afghanistan the UTO reorganized and rearmed with the aid of the Jamiat-i-Islami.

With the assistance of Russian troops and support from the Uzbekistan government, Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU) reestablished communist control over the country. The estimated dead numbered from 50,000 to as many as 100,000. About 1.2 million people were displaced inside and outside Tajikistan. In the midst of the civil war, in June 1993, the Tajik Supreme Court banned all parties save the Communist Party of Tajikistan.

Communist government:

  1. People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan with support of Communist Party of Tajikistan: 2000-present
  2. Communist Party of Tajikistan with support of People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan (front for Communist Party of Tajikistan): 1995-2000
  3. Communist Party of Tajikistan (briefly sole legal party, 1993): 1990-1995
  4. Communist Party of Tajikistan (Tajik section of CPSU), sole legal party: 1924-1990

Type of installation: Soviet Army occupation, 1921

Russian military presence: As of 2002, approximately 25,000 troops of the Border Guard Service, a branch of the Russian Federation Federal Security Service, patrolled Tajikistan’s 1,400-kilometer border with Afghanistan. In 2004 the Russian Armed Forces opened a permanent base in the capital Dushanbe. The 6,000 troops of the 201st Motorized Rifle Division are stationed there. Russia also plans to construct an air base near Dushanbe. Russian troops came to the defense of the pro-Moscow Rahmonov regime during the Tajik Civil War (1992-1997).

Communist Bloc memberships: Commonwealth of Independent States, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Eurasian Economic Community (EEC), Central Asian Cooperation Organization (to merge with EEC), Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Organization of the Islamic Conference

Socialist International presence: none

Ethnic Russian composition: 1.1%

Communist parties of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. Communist Party of Tajikistan (HKT): Founded in 1929, the HKT operates under the leadership of Shodi Shabdolov and associates with the CPSU (Shenin, 2001). In 1991, when many of the constituent republican parties of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were temporarily “banned,” the HKT escaped that potemkin procedure. At that time, the HKT boasted 40,000 members. Presently, it rarely opposes the ruling People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan. Qahhor Mahkamov, who joined the Central Committee of the HKT in 1963, was first secretary of the party between 1985 and 1991. He was also president of the Tajik SSR from November 1990 until August 31, 1991, when he was forced to resign after supporting the August 19 “hardline” communist coup in Moscow. In 2000 President Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU) appointed Mahkamov to the National Assembly, the upper house of the Tajik parliament.

Crypto-communist parties of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. Agrarian Party of Tajikistan: This party is apparently a front for the Communist Party of Tajikistan/ People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan.
  2. Economic Reform Party: This party is apparently a front for the Communist Party of Tajikistan/People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan.
  3. People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan (HDKT): “Post”-communist Tajikistan’s ruling party was founded in 1993 as a front for the Communist Party of Tajikistan. The HDKT operates under the leadership of Emomali Rahmonov and boasts 100,000 members.
  4. Socialist Party of Tajikistan: Founded in 1996, this left socialist party operates under the leadership of Mirhuseyn Narziyev.

Other parties of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. Democratic Party of Tajikistan
  2. Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRP): Founded in 1976 and banned between 1993 and 1998, during the Tajik Civil War, the IRP boycotted the 2006 presidential election. The second largest party in Tajikistan, after the ruling People’s Democratic Party, the IRP boasts 23,000 members. The IRP’s long-time leader, Tajik Muslim cleric Said Abdullo Nuri, died of cancer in August 2006. During the civil war he led the United Tajik Opposition.
  3. Justice Party
  4. Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan

Presidents of “post”-communist Tajikistan

  1. Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan): November 20, 1992-present (Chair, Supreme Assembly until November 16, 1994)
  2. Akbarsho Iskandrov: September 7-November 19, 1992 (acting)
  3. Rakhmon Nabiyev (“ex”-CPSU; Chair, Supreme Soviet, Tajik SSR; President, Tajik SSR): December 2, 1991-September 7, 1992
  4. Akbarsho Iskandrov: October 6-December 2, 1991 (acting)
  5. Rakhmon Nabiyev (“ex”-CPSU; Chair, Supreme Soviet, Tajik SSR; President, Tajik SSR): September 23-October 6, 1991
  6. Kadriddin Aslonov (“ex”-CPSU): August 31-September 23, 1991 (acting)
  7. Qahhor Mahkamov (CPSU): November 1990-August 31, 1991

Prime ministers of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. Okil Okilov (People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan): December 20, 1999-present
  2. Yakhyo Azimov: February 8, 1996-December 20, 1999
  3. Jamshed Karimov: December 2, 1994-February 8, 1996
  4. Abdujalil Samadov: December 18-27, 1993 (acting) December 27, 1993-December 2, 1994
  5. Abdumalik Abdullajanov: September 21-November 22, 1992 (acting), November 22, 1992-December 18, 1993
  6. Akbar Mirzoyev: January 9-September 21, 1992
  7. Izatullo Khayoyev (CPSU, “ex”-CPSU): June 25, 1991-January 9, 1992

Parliament of “post”-communist Tajikistan: Bicameral national legislature, Supreme Assembly, consisting of 63-member Assembly of Representatives and 33-member National Assembly
Soviet-era “parliament”: Supreme Soviet (Council); provisional parliament until 1995

Presidential elections of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. November 6, 2006: Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan) contested the election with Olimzon Boboyev (Economic Reform Party). Rahmonov won 76.4% of the popular vote, while Ismonov won 7.2%. The list of contenders also included Ismail Talbakov of the Communist Party of Tajikistan, Amir Karakulov of the Agrarian Party of Tajikistan, and Abdualim Gagarov of the Socialist Party of Tajikistan. The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, Democratic Party, and Social Democratic Party (SDH) did not field candidates. SDH leader Rakhmatillo Zoyirov criticized the election, asserting: “The Agrarian Party and the Economic Reform Party have a single mission: to create the appearance of a democratic election.”
  2. June 22, 2003: Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan) won a referendum that would allow him to run for two more consecutive seven-year terms after his present term expires in 2006, theoretically permitting him to hold the presidency of Tajikistan until 2020.
  3. November 9, 1999: Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan) contested the election with Davlat Ismonov. Rahmonov won 97.0% of the popular vote, while Ismonov won 2.0%.
  4. November 6, 1994: Emomali Rahmonov (“ex”-CPSU, Communist Party of Tajikistan) contested the election with Abdumalk Abdulajanov (“ex”-CPSU, Party of Popular Unity and Accord). Rahmonov won 58.3% of the popular vote, while Abdulajanov won 35.0%.
  5. December 2, 1991: Rakhmon Nabiyev (“ex”-CPSU) won the election. Disputes concerning the election led to demonstrations by the opposition that paralyzed the country. In May 1992 the country fell into a state of civil war. Nabiyev was ousted in an anti-communist coup in September of that year.

Parliamentary elections of “post”-communist Tajikistan:

  1. February 27 and March 12, 2005: The pro-Nabiyev People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan won 49 out of 63 seats and 64.5% of the popular vote, while the pro-Nabiyev Communist Party of Tajikistan won 4 and 20.6%, Islamic Rebirth Party 2 and 7.5%, pro-Nabiyev “independent” candidates 5, and vacant seats 3.
  2. February 27 and March 12, 2000: The pro-Nabiyev People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan won 30 out of 63 seats and 64.5% of the popular vote, while the pro-Nabiyev Communist Party of Tajikistan won 13 and 20.6%, Islamic Rebirth Party 2 and 7.5%, “independent” candidates 15, and vacant seats 3.
  3. February 26 and March 12, 1995: The Communist Party of Tajikistan and affiliates won 100 out of 181 seats, while the pro-Nabiyev People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan won 10, Party of Popular Unity and Accord 6, Tajikistan Party of Economic and Political Renewal 1, and others 64. Constitutional changes reduced the number of seats in the national legislature before the 2000 parliamentary election.
  4. March 1990: The Communist Party of Tajikistan won 94.0% of the seats in the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR.

One response to “>Red World: Republic of Tajikistan: Soviet Communist Facelift in Central Asia; Communist Party Never Banned

  1. mah29001 December 14, 2006 at 4:43 pm

    >Just like its fellow “former” Communist comrades of Central Asia. Many of these “former” Communists are members of the Shanghai Coorperation Organization led by China. It’s the Central Asian version of a modern Warsaw Pact.

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