>Pictured here: “Post”-communist Kazakhstan’s only president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, a “former” cadre of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Republic of Kazakhstan
Constituent republic of USSR: December 30, 1922-December 16, 1991
1) Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic: December 5, 1936-December 10, 1991
2) Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic: April 15, 1925-December 5, 1936
3) Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (not to be confused with Kyrgyz SSR): August 26, 1920-April 15, 1925
Type of state: “Post”-communist “multiparty” presidential-dominant state under covert control of restored/continuing CPSU
Neo-communist renewal: “Collapse of communism,” 1991
1) Nur-Otan (formerly known as Otan, additional merger with Civic Party of Kazakhstan, Agrarian Party of Kazakhstan, and Asar) with support of Democratic Party of Kazakhstan, and Patriots’ Party of Kazakhstan: 2006-present
2) Otan (crypto-communist, merger of People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity, Liberal Movement of Kazakhstan, and “For Kazakhstan–2030” Movement) with support of Civic Party of Kazakhstan, Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Bloc (including Agrarian Party of Kazakhstan), and Asar: 1999-2006
3) People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity (“ex”-communist): 1996-1999
4) People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity (“ex”-communist) with support from pro-Nazarbayev “independent” and state list candidates: 1994-1996
5) Socialist Party of Kazakhstan (formerly Kazakh Communist Party): 1991-1994
6) Kazakh Communist Party (Kazakh section of CPSU): 1990-1991
7) Kazakh Communist Party (Kazakh section of CPSU), sole legal party: 1922-1990
Communist Bloc memberships: Commonwealth of Independent States, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Eurasian Economic Community (EEC), Central Asian Cooperation Organization (to merge with EEC), Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Organization of the Islamic Conference
Socialist International presence: none
Ethnic Russian composition: 30.0%
President of “post”-communist Kazakhstan:
1) Nursultan Nazarbayev (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity, Otan/Nur-Otan; Chair, Council of Ministers/Chair, Supreme Soviet/ President, Kazakh SSR): December 1, 1991-present
Prime ministers of “post”-communist Kazakhstan:
1) Karim Massimov (Nur-Otan; Co-chair, China-Kazakhstan Cooperation Committee; graduated from Beijing Language University, China): January 10, 2007-present
2) Daniyal Akhmetov (Otan/Nur-Otan): June 13, 2003–January 10, 2007
3) Imangali Tasmagambetov (“ex”-CPSU, Otan): January 28, 2002-June 11, 2003
4) Kasymzhomart Tokayev (Otan): October 1, 1999-January 28, 2002
5) Nurlan Balgimbayev (People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity): October 10, 1997-October 1, 1999
6) Akezhan Kazhegeldin (“ex”-CPSU, People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity, Republican People’s Party of Kazakhstan; KGB, Semipalatinsk Region Department): October 12, 1994-October 10, 1997
7) Sergei Tereshchenko (“nonpartisan,” Otan): October 14, 1991-October 12, 1994
Parliament of “post”-communist Kazakhstan: Bicameral parliament consists of the 98-seat Assembly, or lower house, and 47-seat Senate, or upper house
Soviet-era “parliament”: Supreme Soviet (Council), provisional parliament until 1994
Communist parties of “post”-communist Kazakhstan:
1) All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): This party associates with the Russian VKP(B).
2) Communist Party of Kazakhstan (QPK): Founded in October 1991 the QPK is the reorganized successor of the Kazakh Communist Party, which was founded in June 1937 and “banned” in August 1991. The founders of the new QPK rejected the decision of the 18th Congress of the Kazakh Communist Party to rename itself as the Socialist Party of Kazakhstan. The new QPK officially registered on February 28, 1994 and reregistered in 1997, and operates in all regions of Kazakhstan. It is one of the primary parties “opposing” the Nazarbayev regime. The current leader is Abdildin Serikbolsyn and the party has a membership of 70,000. The QPK associates with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and UCP-CPSU.
3) Kazakhstan Section of CWI: This Trotskyist party was founded in 2002.
4) Kazakhstan Section of SIQI: This Trotskyist party was founded in 2004, after defecting from the Committee for a Workers’ International.
5) Labor Movement of Kazakhstan “Solidarity”: This radical left party was founded in 1990 as the Labor Movement.
6) People’s Communist Party of Kazakhstan (QKKP): The QKKP was founded in 2004 as a split from the QPK. The current leader is Vladislav Kosarev and the party has a membership of 70,000. The split in communist ranks came about when Kosarev accused QPK leader, Serikbolsyn Abdildin, of accepting contributions from dubious sources.
7) People’s Party “Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan”: This party was founded in 2001. The current leader is Galymzhan Zhakiyanov.
8) Socialist Party of Kazakhstan: Founded on September 7, 1991, this party claims to be the legitimate heir of the old Kazakh Communist Party.
Crypto-communist parties of “post”-communist Kazakhstan:
1) Agrarian Party of Kazakhstan: This pro-Nazarbayev party was founded on January 6, 1999, operates under the leadership of Romin Madinov, and has a membership of 102,000.
2) Asar: Founded by President Nazarbayev’s daughter, Dariga, Asar merged into the pro-Nazarbayev Otan party on September 25, 2006. Asar had a membership of 177,000.
3) Civic Party of Kazkhstan (QAP): Founded on November 17, 1998 the QAP announced in October 2006 that it will merge into President Nazarbayev’s Otan party. The QAP has a membership of 160,000.
4) Democratic Party of Kazakhstan: Founded in July 2004 this pro-Nazarbayev party operates under the leadership of Maksut Narikhaev and has a membership of 60,100.
5) Democratic Party of Kazakhstan “Bright Path” (Ak Zhol): Ak Zhol was founded in March 2002 by a dissident faction of Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan. It has a membership of 147,000.
6) Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DVK): Founders of the anti-Nazarbayev DVK included Deputy Defense Minister Zhannat Yertlesova, Deputy Finance Minister Kairat Kelimbetov, and leading Kazakh businessmen, including the head of the Kazkommertz Bank Nurzhan Subkhanberdin, and Bulat Abilov. In the 2004 parliamentary election the DVK entered into an electoral bloc with the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. The party was founded in November 2001 and dissolved in February 2005.
7) Nur-Otan (“Fatherland’s Ray of Light”): Formerly known as Otan, this crypto-communist, pro-Nazarbayev party was founded on February 12, 1999 by a merger of three other presidential parties, People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity, Liberal Movement of Kazakhstan, and “For Kazakhstan–2030” Movement. Asar joined in September 2006, followed by the Civic Party and the Agrarian Party in December, after which the party assumed its current name. Nur-Otan has a membership of 762,000. The China Brief reports: “Capitalizing on anti-American sentiments and the inherent openness to communist ideology of the pro-presidential party, Otan, China has begun to develop a strong strategic relation with its western neighbor” (July 8, 2004, page 7).
8) People’s Union of Kazakhstan Unity: This pro-Nazarbayev party was founded on February 6, 1993. Its relation to National Unity of Kazakhstan, founded on November 17, 1992, is not clear.
9) Republican People’s Party of Kazakhstan (RPPK): The RPPK is one of several parties that “opposes” Nazarbayev and regards the new Communist Party of Kazakhstan as an ally. The leader of the RPPK, Akezhan Kazhegeldin (“ex”-CPSU), was Prime Minister of Kazakhstan until he resigned in October 1997. In 1998 he was elected President of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan. The RPPK website portrays the QPK favorably:
Major responsibility lies now on the Communist Party leaders of Kazakhstan. Nursultan Nazarbayev is ready to let reregister the Communist Party only to have a communist threat to scare the West. We regard today’s communist leaders as our partners in the anti-Nazarbayev coalition. Kazakh Communist Party enjoys the support of a large segment of Kazakh society, represented mostly by senior citizens. I am sure that the rank-and-file communists will support our call for a boycott of the anti-constitutional law. It’s imperative that Communist party leaders make up their mind and support our initiative. The stance of Serikbolsyn Abdildin and other party leaders may be of crucial importance here. True communists have never accepted compromises.
Russian military presence: The Russian Federation currently leases the Baikonur Cosmodrome and 6,000 square kilometers adjacent to that facility from the Kazakh government. This agreement will expire in 2050. As of August 2006 the Russian Space Troops stationed 4,424 personnel at the cosmodrome (The Moscow News, August 14, 2006). These troops will be redeployed or transferred to reserve between 2007 and 2008. The Russian Federal Space Agency manages both Baikonur and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, which is located in the Russian Federation and to which Moscow has transferred many of its spacefaring operations. Opened in 1955 the Baikonur Cosmodrome is the oldest, continuously operating space base in the world. The world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched here on October 4, 1957.